「社会人のための英語回路構築トレーニング自習帖」著者のブログ

Thank You for Visiting Me! 「英語赤ひげ先生」による「知っている英語」を「使える英語」にするための「理論」と「教材」を一挙に無料公開しています。

The Bridges of Madison County(マディソン郡の橋)―(93)

夫 が死んで8年。Francescaは67歳の誕生日を迎えました。昔からのド田舎の家に今も1人で住んでいます。毎年の儀式になったRobert Kincaidから来た手紙を読み返したところです。そして彼とのことを思い出しています。

彼との思い出:
Francesca JohnsonとRobert Kincaidは出会ってから2日目の夜(火曜日)に恋に落ちました。Francescaの家族は金曜日まで戻って来ません。2人は精神的にも肉体的にも完全に結ばれます。それからは2人だけの時間を持ち続け、今後どうするかを話し合います。結論として、Robert Kincaidは去ることになります。

The Highway and the Peregrine (7)

Francesca said nothing. She knew he could, indeed, settle the matter in short order. Richard was five years younger than him, but no match intellectually or physically for Robert Kincaid.
He slipped into his vest. Her mind was gone, empty, turning. “Don’t leave, Robert Kincaid,” she could hear herself crying out from somewhere inside.
Taking her hand, he walked through the back door toward the truck. He opened the driver’s door, put his foot on the running board, then stepped off it and held her again for several minutes. Neither of them spoke, they simply stood there, sending, receiving, imprinting the feel of each on the other, indelibly. Reaffirming the existence the existence of that special being he had talked about,
For the last time, he let her go and stepped into the truck, sitting there with the door open. Tears running down his cheeks. Tears running down her cheeks. Slowly he pulled the door shut, hinges creaking. Harry was reluctant to start, as usual, but she could hear his boot hitting the accelerator, and the old truck eventually relented.
He shifted into reverse and sat there with the clutch in. First serious, then with a little grin, pointing toward the lane. “The road, you know. I’ll be in southeast India next month. Want a card from there?”
She couldn’t speak but said with a shake of her head. That would be too much for Richard to find in the mailbox. She knew Robert understood. He nodded.
The truck backed into the farmyard, crunching across the gravel, chickens scattering from under its wheels. Jack chased one of them into the machine shed, barking.
Robert Kincaid waved to her through the open passenger-side window. She could see the sun flashing off his silver bracelet. The top two buttons of his shirt were open.


解説:

Francesca said nothing.

She knew he could, indeed, settle the matter in short order.
■in short order:迅速に

Richard was five years younger than him, but no match intellectually or physically for Robert Kincaid.
■match for …:・・・とよく釣り合う人・物

He slipped into his vest.
■slip into …:をさっと着る

Her mind was gone, empty, turning(おかしくなる). “Don’t leave, Robert Kincaid,” she could hear herself crying out from somewhere inside.
Taking her hand, he walked through the back door toward the truck.

He opened the driver’s door, put his foot on the running board, then stepped off it and held her again for several minutes.
■running board:トラックに乗る時の足掛け板

Neither of them spoke, they simply stood there, sending, receiving, imprinting(を刻み込む) the feel of each on the other, indelibly(消えないように). Reaffirming(の正当性を再確認する) the existence the existence of that special being(生物) he had talked about,
For the last time, he let her go and stepped into the truck, sitting there with the door open. Tears running down his cheeks. Tears running down her cheeks. Slowly he pulled the door shut, hinges(ちょうつがい) creaking.

Harry was reluctant(したくない) to start, as usual, but she could hear his boot hitting the accelerator, and the old truck eventually(やがて) relented(優しくなる).
■Harry:Robert Kincaidが運転するピックアップ・トラックの名前

He shifted into reverse and sat there with the clutch in. First serious, then with a little grin, pointing toward the lane. “The road, you know. I’ll be in southeast India next month. Want a card from there?”
She couldn’t speak but said with a shake of her head. That would be too much for Richard to find in the mailbox. She knew Robert understood. He nodded.
The truck backed into the farmyard(農場の建物に囲まれた場所), crunching(ザクザク音を立てて進む) across the gravel(砂利), chickens scattering from under its wheels(車輪). Jack chased one of them into the machine shed(小屋), barking.
Robert Kincaid waved to her through the open passenger-side window. She could see the sun flashing(ぴかっと光る) off his silver bracelet. The top two buttons of his shirt were open.

I gave a boy the book.

「理科系のための英文作法」(杉原厚吉 中公新書)で取り上げられている言語材料です。

我々が学校で習った英文法では、この文は5文型の1つである(SVOO)に当てはまっており、「私は1人の少年にその本をあげた」となり全く問題ないように見えます。

しかし、この文は英米人にとっては「不自然」に感じるらしい。I gave a boy the book. はI gave the book to a boy.と書き直せることも習った。こちらの方は英米人も極めて自然に感じるらしい。

「I gave the book to a boy.」は、英文法の本には書いてないが、『原則として、前置詞の前で、それまで送られて来た絵(イメージ)は一旦止まる』ので、この文は「私はその本をあげた、(あげたのは)1人の少年に」の絵(イメージ)を送ることになります。

一方、「I gave a boy the book.」の方は、前置詞がないので「私は1人の少年にあげた、その本を」となります。この場合「the book」は定冠詞 the が付いているので聞く側にとっては「古い情報(既知)」です。これに比べて「a boy」は聞く側にとっては、この場面(文脈)では「新しい情報(新規)」です。

久野瞕ハーバード大学名誉教授(言語学者)によれば「文中の語順は、古いインフォメーションを表す要素から、新しいインフォメーションを表す要素へと進むのを原則とする」。この原則に照らせば「I gave a boy the book.」は「不可」ということになります。

それでは、上記の英文が「a boy」が「the boy」ならどうでしょうか?
「人(the boy)」と「物(the book)」を比べたら「人(the boy)」が優先されるので
I gave the boy the book.または
I gave the book to the boy.(本の方により関心がある場合)

「give」と同じように「SVOO」文型が可能な「ask」でも「ask someone something」で使われ「ask something to someone」は不可と辞書に書いてあります。これは「ask」という動詞の持つ「イメージ」との関係で「人」が優先されるからです。「I’ll ask a question to you.」と聞いたら、聞かれた方は「冷たい」扱いを受けたと感じると英語ネイテイヴから聞いたことを思い出しました」。

「文中の語順は、古いインフォメーションを表す要素から、新しいインフォメーションを表す要素へと進むのを原則とする」を「英文法」とするには、余りにも例外が多いかも知れませんので注意して欲しいのですが、「古いインフォメーションを表す要素から、新しいインフォメーションを表す要素へと進むと相手が分かり易い英文になる」とは言えそうです。

The Bridges of Madison County(マディソン郡の橋)―(92)

夫 が死んで8年。Francescaは67歳の誕生日を迎えました。昔からのド田舎の家に今も1人で住んでいます。毎年の儀式になったRobert Kincaidから来た手紙を読み返したところです。そして彼とのことを思い出しています。

彼との思い出:
Francesca JohnsonとRobert Kincaidは出会ってから2日目の夜(火曜日)に恋に落ちました。Francescaの家族は金曜日まで戻って来ません。2人は精神的にも肉体的にも完全に結ばれます。それからは2人だけの時間を持ち続け、今後どうするかを話し合います。結論として、Robert Kincaidは去ることになります。

The Highway and the Peregrine (6)

He had made coffee and was sitting at the kitchen table, smoking, when she got there. He grinned at her. She moved across the room and buried her face in his neck, her hands in his hair, his arms around her waist. He turned her around and sat her on his lap, touching her.
Finally he stood. He had his old jeans on, with orange suspenders running over a clean khaki shirt, his Red Wing boots were laced tight, the Swiss Army knife was on his belt. His photo vest hung from the back of the chair, the cable release poking out of a pocket. The cowboy was saddled up.
“I’d better be going.”
She nodded, beginning to cry. She saw the tears in his eyes, but he kept smiling that little smile of his.
“Is it okay if I write you sometime? I want to at least send a photo or two.”
“It’s all right,” Francesca said, wiping her eyes on the towel hanging from the cupboard door. “I’ll make some excuse for getting mail from a hippie photographer, as long as it’s not too much.”
“You have my Washington address and phone, right?” She nodded. “If I’m not there, call the National Geographic offices. Here, I’ll write the number down for you.” He wrote on the pad by the phone, tore off the sheet, and handed it to her.
“Or you can always find the number in the magazine. Ask for the editorial offices. They know where I am most of the time.
“Don’t hesitate if you want to see me, or just to talk. Call me collect anywhere in the world, the charges won’t appear on your bill that way. And I’ll be around here for a
few more days. Think about what I’ve said. I can be here, settle the matter in short order, and we could drive northwest together.”


解説:

He had made coffee and was sitting at the kitchen table, smoking, when she got there. He grinned(にっこり笑う) at her. She moved across the room and buried her face in his neck, her hands in his hair, his arms around her waist. He turned her around and sat her on his lap(ひざ), touching her.
Finally he stood.

He had his old jeans on, with orange suspenders running over a clean khaki shirt, his Red Wing boots were laced(をひもで締める) tight, the Swiss Army knife was on his belt.
■Red Wing:アメリカのブーツメーカー
■Swiss Army knife:マルチナイフ

His photo vest hung from the back of the chair, the cable release poking(つき出る) out of a pocket.

The cowboy was saddled(に鞍をつける) up.
■馬に鞍をつけると出発準備完了です。その比喩。

“I’d better be going.”
■had better …:「・・・した方がよい」と習いましたが、「・・・しなければならない」のニュアンスに近い。

She nodded, beginning to cry. She saw the tears in his eyes, but he kept smiling(の笑い方をする) that little smile of his.

“Is it okay if I write you sometime? I want to at least send a photo or two.”
■Is it okay if …:・・・してもよいですか

“It’s all right,” Francesca said, wiping her eyes on the towel hanging from the cupboard(食器棚) door.

“I’ll make some excuse for getting mail from a hippie photographer, as long as it’s not too much.”
■as long as it’s not too much:余程のことがない限り

“You have my Washington address and phone, right?” She nodded. “If I’m not there, call the National Geographic offices. Here, I’ll write the number down for you.” He wrote on the pad(はぎ取り式ノート) by the phone, tore(破る) off the sheet, and handed it to her.
“Or you can always find the number in the magazine. Ask for the editorial offices. They know where I am most of the time.
“Don’t hesitate if you want to see me, or just to talk. Call me collect anywhere in the world, the charges won’t appear on your bill that way. And I’ll be around here for a
few more days. Think about what I’ve said.

I can be here, settle the matter in short order, and we could drive northwest together.”
■in short order:迅速に
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