「社会人のための英語回路構築トレーニング自習帖」著者のブログ

Thank You for Visiting Me! 「英語赤ひげ先生」による「知っている英語」を「使える英語」にするための「理論」と「教材」を一挙に無料公開しています。

2013年11月

The New York Times を読む(2)

今回も前回に続いて尖閣諸島上空の防空識別圏問題です。

見出し:China Sends Jets Into ‘Air Defense’ Zone After Flights by Japan and South Korea

TOKYO — China sent fighter jets into its newly declared air defense zone Thursday on what state media called the country’s first air patrol since it declared control of the airspace(管轄権の及ぶ領空). The announcement came hours after Japan and South Korea sent their own military planes into the airspace over the East China Sea, testing China’s resolve(決意)to enforce(施行する、守らせる)its declaration.
The New York Times
The announcement of the flights came just days after unarmed American B-52 bombers flew through the same zone in defiance of(を無視して)China. Beijing later said that it had monitored the American bombers but had chosen not to take action even though the planes did not tell the Chinese they were coming, as the government now demands.
On Thursday, the top Japanese government spokesman, Chief Cabinet Secretary Yoshihide Suga, said that the Chinese had not been notified of(・・・を知らされていなかった)the Japanese flights, and reported that China did not scramble its fighter jets to intercept the planes.
The South Korean government announced that it, too, had flown aircraft through the zone, on Wednesday, without alerting(・・・に注意を喚起する)Beijing, a flight Chinese officials said they had monitored. The South Korean plane was a surveillance(監視)aircraft, the South Korean government said.
Like Japan, South Korea claims sovereignty(主権、統治権)over territory in the zone, but enjoys warmer ties with Beijing than Japan does.
Japan did not specify how many patrols had flown through the zone or when the flights were made.
Japan, the United States and South Korea have all refused to recognize the air zone, which includes the airspace above disputed(争われている)islands, known as the Senkaku in Japan and Diaoyu(魚釣島群島)in Chinese. The islands are administered by Japan, but also claimed(自分の所有物として要求されている)by China.
When China declared the zone on Saturday, it said that it would police the airspace with military aircraft, a move that raised the specter(不安材料)of Japanese and Chinese fighter jets intercepting each other. The move drew immediate criticism from both Japan and the United States, which is obligated by treaty to defend Japan from attack.
China’s failure so far to enforce the zone appears to support the view of some Japanese officials that the declaration of control was part of a broader, long-term strategy to try to pry(を引き離す)the islands out of Japan’s grip. China has been doing this by sending coast guard ships around the islands, dispatching patrol aircraft and now claiming the airspace above — all steps, Japanese officials say, aimed at proving that China has just as much legal basis as Japan to claim that it administers the islands.

英語の文型(36)

S=主語、V=動詞、C=補語、O=目的語、直結副詞語句とは、それなしには文が成立しない副詞語句を言い、ここでは他の副詞語句と区別してあります。

(36−1)It is difficult to speak English. S(It)+V(be)+C(形容詞)+ to ―(英語をしゃべるのは難しい)

これは所謂「it … to …」文型といわれているものです。

「不定詞(to + 動詞の原形)」は「主語」になることができます(「・・・することは」の意になります)。従い、「To speak English is difficult」と言うことは「文法的には」可能です。しかし「to」は「指差すイメージ」を持つ言葉ですので、文の最初に指をさされるのは抵抗があります(絵が描き難い)。そこで取りあえず「それは難しい」と「主語+動詞」を言い、『「それは」では分からないよ』という心理的な「突っ込み」に対して「指差すイメージ」の「to」を使って応えているのです。皆さんも取りあえず「It’s …」と切り出してみましょう。それから、ゆっくり頭の中の絵を見て、指差して「to …」と言えばよいのです。

「不定詞)」は動詞を使っていますので意味上の主語が存在するハズです。ここでは文の中にそれを明示する言葉は見つかりません。話者の無意識の意識の中で、誰にでも通用する意識があってのことと考えるべきでしょう。あるいは全くそんなことを意識していないということでしょう。

(36−2)It will be difficult for you to master English in a year. S(It)+V(be)+for ―+ to ―(あなたが、英語を1年で習得するのは難しいでしょう)

(36−1)では話者の頭の中には「speak English」は「特定の」人にとって難しいという意識は全くありませんが、「特定の」人にとって難しいという意識があれば、その人を文の中でハッキリさせなければなりません。その1つの手段として「不定詞」の前に「for +特定の人」という句を持ってきます(difficult のところが foolish, wise のような個人の性格を表すような形容詞の場合には for ではなくて of を持って来ます)。上記がその例です。話者の頭の中では「あなたの今のレベルや置かれた環境では」という意識が働いているハズです。「彼が」なら「for him to master English in a year」となります。

前置詞の後の名詞・代名詞はその目的格が来ます。

「ドリル」→次の文を、絵を頭に描きながら口に出して言ってみましょう。

“It is difficult to speak English.”

Did I say, “It is difficult to speak English”?
Yes, you said, “It is difficult to speak English.”

What did I say?
You said, “It is difficult to speak English.”

Is it difficult to speak English?
Yes, it’s difficult to speak English. (No も有り得る)

Is it difficult to speak Japanese?
No, it isn’t difficult to speak Japanese.

Is it easy to speak Japanese?
Yes, it’s easy to speak Japanese.

What is easy to speak?
Japanese is easy to speak.

What is difficult to speak?
English is difficult to speak.

英語の文型(35)

S=主語、V=動詞、C=補語、O=目的語、直結副詞語句とは、それなしには文が成立しない副詞語句を言い、ここでは他の副詞語句と区別してあります。

(35)Will you advise me which to buy? S+V+O+O(疑問詞+ to ―)(どれを買うべきか助言してくれますか)

前回は「what to say」でしたが、今回は「which to buy」です。

「advise」という動詞は『「・・・に」「・・・について」助言する』と「SVOO」文型が作れる動詞の1つです。「SVOO」文型が作れる動詞には他に「ask」「buy」「tell」「call」「give」等があります。

「どれを買うべきか助言してくれますか」という場合、通例「私に助言してくれますか」の絵(イメージ)が先に頭に浮かんでくると思います⇒「Will you advise me」。次に「どれを買うべきかを」の「どれ」の部分は「which」が対応しますので「Will you advise me which」で「SVOO」が完成します。後は情報の追加です。「買うべき」という表現形式が取られ、所謂「前置詞の形容詞的用法」ということで「to buy」が付け加えられます。これについては前回(34)詳しく解説しています。

「ドリル」→次の文を、絵を頭に描きながら口に出して言ってみましょう。

“Will you advise me which to buy?”

Did I say, “Will you advise me which to buy?”
Yes, you said, “Will you advise me which to buy?”

Did you say, “Will you advise me which to buy?”
No, I didn’t say, “Will you advise me which to buy?”

Who said, “Will you advise me which to buy?”
You said, “Will you advise me which to buy?”

What did I say?
You said, “Will you advise me which to buy?”

Will you advise me which to buy?
Yes, I will ad-vise you which to buy.(No も有り得ます。あなた自身の判断です)

Who will advise me which to buy?
I will advise you which to buy.

What will you advise me?
I will advise you which to buy.

The New York Times を読む(1)

このところ英語の基礎的な解説が続いています。そこで、これに加えて、「上級者」向けの教材として「The New York Times」の記事の中から、我々日本人にも関心がありそうなものを拾って時々ご紹介します。今回は「中国の防空識別圏の設定」が引き起こしたことに関するアメリカの反応についてです。最初の部分の難しそうな単語に対応する日本語をつけておきました。

見出し:
Airspace(管轄権の及ぶ領空)Claim Forces Obama to Flesh Out(を肉付けする)His China Strategy

WASHINGTON — While foreign-policy experts and risk analysts were riveted(注意を集中させられた)by the nuclear talks with Iran last weekend, the next major geopolitical crisis erupted(勃発した)a world away, over a clump of desolate islands(住む人のいない一群の島を巡って)in the choppy(波立つ)waters between Japan and China.

With the United States sending two B-52s to reinforce its protest over China’s attempt to control the airspace over the islands, it served as a timely reminder that President Obama wants to turn America’s gaze(注視)eastward, away from the preoccupations(没頭)of the Middle East.

Mr. Obama’s shift — once known as a pivot(回転), now rebranded(イメージを変えた)as a rebalance(再びの平衡)— has always seemed more rhetorical(美辞麗句をもてあそぶ)than real. But when Vice President Joseph R. Biden Jr. travels to China, Japan and South Korea next week, the administration will have another chance to flesh out the policy.

“What isn’t clear to me is whether they see this as a Japan-China problem that needs to be managed or as part of a longer-term test of wills with Beijing,” said Michael J. Green, an Asia adviser in the administration of President George W. Bush who is now at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

If it is the latter, Mr. Green said, the United States needs to project military power in the region, build up the defensive capacities of allies(同盟国)like Japan and the Philippines, and align(整列させる)the countries that ring China’s coastal waters to present a united front against Beijing’s aggression(強引な自己主張).

The trouble, he added, is that “the administration is very worried about appearing to contain(を封じ込める)China.”
The cause of all this trouble are the flyspeck(小さな点)Senkaku Islands, which Japan administers but that China, enticed(誘惑された)that they may sit atop rich mineral reserves, now claims, calling them the Diaoyu Islands(魚釣島群島).

The dispute has mushroomed(急速に発展した)into a dangerous standoff(対峙)between the world’s second- and third-largest economies — one that rekindles(再燃させる)old resentments(憤り)over the World War II conduct of imperial Japan and pits(を闘わせる)a conservative Japanese leader, Shinzo Abe, against a Chinese president, Xi Jinping, who is riding a nationalist tide in his country.

With so much at stake, Mr. Biden’s advisers say the dispute will intrude on every meeting he has in the region. That could come at a cost to an agenda that includes promoting a trans-Pacific trade deal and discussing how to deal with the nuclear threat in North Korea. Mr. Biden must also decide how to handle the bitter animosity between Mr. Abe and South Korea’s president, Park Geun-hye.

“There’s an emerging pattern of behavior that is unsettling to China’s neighbors,” a senior administration official said on Wednesday, previewing Mr. Biden’s message. At the same, he added, “The vice president of the United States is not traveling to Beijing to deliver a demarche,” a diplomatic term of art for a slap on the wrist.

The delicate balancing act in Mr. Obama’s Asia policy, between cooperating with and containing China, is evident in the administration’s mixed messages over the last two weeks. Speaking before Beijing’s latest provocation, the national security adviser, Susan E. Rice, said the United States was seeking “a new model of major power relations.”

“That means,” she said in her maiden speech on Asia, “managing inevitable competition while forging deeper cooperation on issues where our interests converge.”

Referring to the territorial disputes between China and its neighbors — which flare up not only with Japan in the East China Sea but also in the South China Sea, with the Philippines and Vietnam — Ms. Rice urged “all parties to reject coercion and aggression and to pursue their claims in accordance with international law and norms.”

To some critics, that smacked of moral equivalence: The coercion and aggression have been overwhelmingly on the part of China against its smaller neighbors. But on Saturday, when Beijing announced an “air defense identification zone” over a wide section of airspace above the islands, the United States jumped off the fence.

Secretary of State John Kerry immediately condemned what he called an “escalatory action” by China and Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel said the United States would not alter any military operations because of it, a promise he kept this week by sending the unarmed bombers from Guam on a routine mission off the coast of China.

Administration officials said it was important to push back against China’s dubious assertion of jurisdiction over international airspace. The Chinese policy requires foreign planes flying through the zone to identify themselves and file a flight plan, even if they are not flying into Chinese airspace.
The symbolism of B-52s’ flying, with no advance warning, through China’s zone spares Mr. Biden from having to play the tough guy. But experts said he needed to leave no doubt in talks with Mr. Xi that the United States thinks the Chinese move was ill advised.

“It will have the Chinese scrambling aircraft time after time, especially if the Japanese play games with it,” said Kenneth G. Lieberthal, a China adviser during the Clinton administration.
The vice president has firsthand experience of this. On a visit to Beijing in 2011, he presented Chinese officials with photographs taken by American pilots that documented how Chinese fighters, sent to intercept American planes flying surveillance missions off China’s coast, sometimes came within 10 feet of their wingtips.

Mr. Biden has cultivated an unusually personal relationship with Mr. Xi. The two traveled together in China and the United States, when Mr. Xi was vice president. That may make Mr. Biden more alert to the domestic political pressures the Chinese leader faces, as he embarks on risky economic overhauls after a recent Communist Party congress.

“Chinese social media, official and semiofficial media are all playing up this dispute,” said Cheng Li, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution. “The U.S. has failed to understand how much weight the sovereignty issue carries with Asian countries.”

The tensions are likely to increase. The Chinese Navy has put its only aircraft carrier out to sea, on a course toward the South China Sea. In the East China Sea, an American carrier group is joining Japanese warships for long-planned naval exercises.
With so much firepower in such hotly contested waters, experts said there was a real danger of miscalculation by either side. Mr. Biden, who will begin his trip in Tokyo, is expected to urge Mr. Abe to show restraint as well.

The good news for all concerned, China experts said, is that Mr. Xi is much less interested in military adventurism than in overhauling China’s economy. “The chances of a real war are still low,” Mr. Li said. “But sometimes incidents will push leaders into a corner.”

英語の文型(34)

S=主語、V=動詞、C=補語、O=目的語、直結副詞語句とは、それなしには文が成立しない副詞語句を言い、ここでは他の副詞語句と区別してあります。

(34)I don’t know what to say. S+V+O(疑問詞+ to ―)(私は何と言っていいか分からない)

「私は何と言っていいか分からない」という絵(イメージ)が頭に浮かんできたら、英語では兎に角「主語+動詞」が先行しますので「私は分からない⇒I don’t know」が口をついて出てきます。つぎに「何と言っていいか」の「何」の部分は「5W1H」の「what」が対応しますので「I don’t know what」で「SVO」が完成します。後は情報の追加です。

「何と言っていいか」は「言うべき何か」という表現形式が取られ、所謂「前置詞の形容詞的用法」ということで「to say」が付け加えられます。「私は何処へ行ったらよいか分からない」なら「I don’t know where to go.」。

コミュニケーション的には「前置詞の形容詞的用法」と言われるものも「前置詞の名詞的用法」「前置詞の副詞的用法」も皆、「to」という「指差す」イメージの言葉を使って情報の追加をしているだけです。上記の例文では「I don’t know what(私は何かが分からない)」⇒(何かでは分からない)⇒「to say」という構図です。

「ドリル」→次の文を、絵を頭に描きながら口に出して言ってみましょう。

“I don’t know what to say.”

Did I say, “I don’t know what to say”?
Yes, you said, “I don’t know what to say.”

What did I say?
You said, “I don’t know what to say.”

Do I know what to say?
No, you don’t know what to say.

Who doesn’t know what to say?
You don’t know what to say.

What don’t I know?
You don’t know what to say.
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