「社会人のための英語回路構築トレーニング自習帖」著者のブログ

Thank You for Visiting Me! 「英語赤ひげ先生」による「知っている英語」を「使える英語」にするための「理論」と「教材」を一挙に無料公開しています。

2016年10月

2000語で書かれた物語(3)

読んだら理解できる単語の数と使える単語の数は異なります。本シリーズでは2000語で書かれた物語を1日1話ご紹介します。理解するだけなら辞書を引かなければならないことはほとんどないと思います(TOEIC 600-700 レベル)。

解説は、原則として、使われた単語や表現を「使う」場合の留意点に絞ってあります。原本は「A History of Western Tragedies and Accidents(著者:Nina Wegner:IBCパブリッシング」

(3) The Wives of Henry VIII

Henry VIII was the king of England from 1509 to 1547. Some say Henry VIII was one of the most interesting kings to have ever ruled England. However, he is perhaps best known for the terrible way he treated his six wives. As soon as he became tired or bored with one woman, he simply got rid of her and moved on to another woman. He even killed two of his wives. Today, there is a little poem that describes the sad fates of his wives.

King Henry the Eighth,
To six wives he was wedded.
One died, one survived,
Two divorced, two beheaded.

Catherine of Aragon was Henry VIII’s first wife. She was a good wife and a popular queen among the people of England. However, try as she might, she could not give Henry a son. Her one child who survived was a girl, Mary. Henry wanted a son to become king after him, and he had begun an affair with a young lady named Anne Boleyn. In order to marry Anne, Henry separated with Catherine.
Anne and Henry’s marriage lasted only a little less than three years. She was beautiful and clever, but like Catherine of Aragon, she could not produce a son. Soon, Henry became tired of her and came up with a plan to have her killed. Anne was charged with several crimes against the state and she was beheaded on May 18, 1536.
After Anne, Henry moved onto his third wife, Jane Seymour. A year after their marriage, Jane gave birth to a healthy baby boy, Henry’s first son. He was delighted, but Jane died just 12 days later, from health problems caused by labor.
Anne of Cleves was Henry’s forth wife. Their marriage lasted only six months before Henry arranged a separation. Then he married Catherine Howard, a woman from a noble family who was young and pretty. Their marriage only lasted one year. When Henry found out Catherine was having an affair with another man, he quickly had her beheaded too.
Henry’s six and final wife was Catherine Parr, a woman who was married twice before. Her first two husbands had died, and so did Henry. She is the only one of Henry’s wives who did not die or go through divorce. There are many stories, movies, and plays today about the life of Henry VIII and the lives of his six wives.


解説:
今回は6度の結婚に加えて、ローマ・カトリック教会からのイングランド国教会の分離によって知られるヘンリー8世とその妻たちの話です。

Henry VIII was the king of England from 1509 to 1547. Some say Henry VIII was one of the most interesting kings to have ever ruled England. However, he is perhaps best known for the terrible way he treated his six wives. As soon as he became tired or bored with one woman, he simply got rid of her and moved on to another woman. He even killed two of his wives. Today, there is a little poem that describes the sad fates of his wives.

King Henry the Eighth,
To six wives he was wedded.
One died, one survived,
Two divorced, two beheaded(首を切られた).

Catherine of Aragon was Henry VIII’s first wife. She was a good wife and a popular queen among the people of England. However, try as she might(一生懸命試みたが⇒成句), she could not give Henry a son. Her one child who survived was a girl, Mary. Henry wanted a son to become king(役職としての王なので無冠詞) after him, and he had begun an affair with a young lady named Anne Boleyn. In order to marry Anne, Henry separated with Catherine.
Anne and Henry’s marriage lasted only a little less than three years. She was beautiful and clever, but like Catherine of Aragon, she could not produce a son. Soon, Henry became tired of her and came up with a plan(計画を思いついた)to have her killed(「have my hair cut (髪を切って貰う)」と同じ用法). Anne was charged with several crimes against the state(国) and she was beheaded on May 18, 1536.
After Anne, Henry moved onto his third wife, Jane Seymour. A year after their marriage, Jane gave birth to a healthy baby boy, Henry’s first son. He was delighted, but Jane died just 12 days later, from health problems caused by labor(お産).
Anne of Cleves was Henry’s forth wife. Their marriage lasted only six months before Henry arranged a separation. Then he married Catherine Howard, a woman from a noble family who was young and pretty. Their marriage only lasted one year. When Henry found out Catherine was having an affair with another man, he quickly had her beheaded too.
Henry’s six and final wife was Catherine Parr, a woman who was married twice before. Her first two husbands had died, and so did Henry. She is the only one of Henry’s wives who did not die or go through divorce. There are many stories, movies, and plays today about the life of Henry VIII and the lives of his six wives.

2000語で書かれた物語(2)

読んだら理解できる単語の数と使える単語の数は異なります。本シリーズでは2000語で書かれた物語を1日1話ご紹介します。理解するだけなら辞書を引かなければならないことはほとんどないと思います(TOEIC 600-700 レベル)。

解説は、原則として、使われた単語や表現を「使う」場合の留意点に絞ってあります。原本は「A History of Western Tragedies and Accidents(著者:Nina Wegner:IBCパブリッシング」

(2) The Assassination of John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States of America. He was the youngest president ever, and he was popular and well-loved among American people for his bright new ideas. He was shot and killed in the third year of his term as president, causing shock and grief across the nation and the world.
On November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was traveling in an open-top car in a procession through downtown Dallas, Texas. He was in Dallas to attend a lunch meeting with some of the city’s top leaders and businessmen. He had arrived at Dallas Love Field airport that morning, and he was going to drive through town in an open-top car to greet the people of Dallas on his way to the lunch.
It was a sunny day, and the procession was running about 10 minutes late. President Kennedy’s wife, Jacqueline Kennedy, was sitting next to the president in the back seat of the car. Sitting in the front seat were Texas Governor John Connally and the governor’s wife, Nellie Connally. Crowds had gathered all along the path of the procession with people who were excited at the chance to see the president. At around 12:30 p.m., the president car passed a building known as the Texas Schoolbook Depository near Daley Plaza. Just at this moment, as the president waved to the crowds who lined the streets, he was shot once in his upper back and once in the back of his head.
Governor Connally was also shot in the shoulder, and after being shot, he cried out, “Oh no, no, no. My God. They’re going to kill us all!” Special Agent Clint Hill, who was following the president in the car directly behind him, jumped into the president’s car and tried to protect him. As soon as he jumped in, the car sped up and headed straight to Parkland Memorial Hospital.
The doctors who received President Kennedy at the hospital said Kennedy’s condition was so bad when he arrived that he did not have any chance at survival. They tried all they could, but the president was declared dead at 1:0o p.m.
The body of John F. Kennedy was flown back to Washington, D.C., on Air Force One. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson officially became the president of the United States on the airplane at 2:38 p.m. Kennedy’s wife, Jacqueline, stood by Johnson’s side.
John F. Kennedy’s death caused the shock and grief of an entire nation. His body lay in state in the U.S. Capitol where hundreds of thousands of people came to pay their respects. Representatives from 90 countries attended the funeral on Monday, November 25. Kennedy was finally buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.
In the following ten months, a special team called the Warren Commission was ordered by the U.S. government to find out what happened. The Warren Commission was successful in finding a man suspect, Lee Harvey Oswald. He was tried in court and found guilty of the crime, but many people today believe that Oswald was not guilty. Today, many believe that the assassination and the Warren Commission were all part of a government plan to assassinate the president, but nobody knows the truth.


解説:
John Fitzgerald Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States of America. He was the youngest president ever(最上級の強調:「今までに」), and he was popular and well-loved among American people for his bright new ideas. He was shot and killed in the third year of his term as president(役職は無冠詞), causing shock and grief across the nation and the world.
On November 22, 1963, President Kennedy was traveling in an open-top car in a procession(行列) through downtown Dallas, Texas. He was in Dallas to attend a lunch meeting with some of the city’s top leaders and businessmen. He had arrived at Dallas Love Field airport(固有名詞扱い) that morning, and he was going to drive through town in an open-top car to greet the people of Dallas on his way to the lunch.
It was a sunny day, and the procession was running about 10 minutes late. President Kennedy’s wife, Jacqueline Kennedy, was sitting next to the president in the back seat of the car. Sitting in the front seat were Texas Governor John Connally and the governor’s wife, Nellie Connally. Crowds had gathered all along the path of the procession with people who were excited at the chance to see the president. At around 12:30 p.m., the president car passed a building known as the Texas Schoolbook Depository(倉庫) near Daley Plaza. Just at this moment, as(when と同じ意味で使われていますが同時性を表します) the president waved to the crowds who lined(・・・に沿って並ぶ) the streets, he was shot once in his upper back(打たれた体の部署を表すのには「in」が使われます) and once in the back of his head.
Governor Connally was also shot in the shoulder, and after being shot, he cried out, “Oh no, no, no. My God. They’re going to kill us all!”(この発言から彼は事前にこの発砲事件を知っていたことを伺わせます) Special Agent Clint Hill, who was following the president in the car directly behind him, jumped into the president’s car and tried to protect him. As soon as he jumped in, the car sped up(通例このようなパレードでは時速20マイルで走るべきところを10マイルで走っていたようです)and headed straight to Parkland Memorial Hospital.
The doctors who received President Kennedy at the hospital said Kennedy’s condition was so bad when he arrived that he did not have any chance at survival. They tried all they could, but the president was declared dead at 1:0o p.m.
The body of John F. Kennedy was flown back to Washington, D.C., on Air Force One. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson officially became the president of the United States on the airplane at 2:38 p.m. Kennedy’s wife, Jacqueline, stood by Johnson’s side.
John F. Kennedy’s death caused the shock and grief of an entire nation. His body lay in state(威厳を持って) in the U.S. Capitol where hundreds of thousands of people came to pay their respects. Representatives from 90 countries attended the funeral on Monday, November 25. Kennedy was finally buried at Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia.
In the following ten months, a special team called the Warren Commission was ordered by the U.S. government to find out what happened. The Warren Commission was successful in finding a man suspect, Lee Harvey Oswald. He was tried in court and found guilty of the crime, but many people today believe that Oswald was not guilty. Today, many believe that the assassination and the Warren Commission were all part of a government plan to assassinate the president, but nobody knows the truth.(当時副大統領だったLyndon B. Johnsonもこのパレードに参加していて大統領の前の車に乗っていました。彼は銃声が聞こえる前に何故か身を隠したという話もあるようです)

2000語で書かれた物語(1)

読んだら理解できる単語の数と使える単語の数は異なります。本シリーズでは2000語で書かれた物語を1日1話ご紹介します。理解するだけなら辞書を引かなければならないことはほとんどないと思います(TOEIC 600-700 レベル)。

解説は、原則として、使われた単語や表現を「使う」場合の留意点に絞ってあります。原本は「A History of Western Tragedies and Accidents(著者:Nina Wegner:IBCパブリッシング」

(1) 9/11
Tuesday, September 11, 2001, is a day that changed American history. On the morning of September 11, the largest terrorist attack against the United States was carried out. It is also the only terrorist attack against the United States that occurred on American soil. The event shocked the world and caused a war in Iraq, which lasted almost ten years. It finally led to the assassination of Osama bin Laden, the leader of the Islamist terrorist group, al-Qaeda. The attack forever changed the way the American people think about foreign policy, the international role of the U.S., and terrorism.
The terrorist attack of September 11 took the form of four suicide attacks. Nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists took control of four American airplanes with the purpose of crashing them into buildings in New York City, and Washington, D.C. These events took place within the space of two hours on a Tuesday morning. What happened is known today as 9/11.
It seemed to be a normal Tuesday morning, similar to any other morning in the late summer. But at 8:45 a.m., an airplane carrying 92 passengers crashed into the north World Trade Center tower in New York. About 15 minutes later, a second plane carrying 65 people crashed into the south World Trade Center tower. As the city of New York went into total shock, word spread throughout the country that the United States was under attack.
Roughly half an hour after the second attack, at 9:40 a.m., a third plane carrying 64 people crashed into the Pentagon in Washington D.C., which is the home of the U.S. Department of Defense. Twenty minutes later, at 10-03 a.m., a fourth plane carrying 40 people crashed into a field in Pennsylvania about 80 miles southeast of Pittsburgh.
As the World Trade Center towers caught on fire and sent great clouds of smoke into the air, people across the world watched the terrible images on television in complete shock. Never before had such a thing happened in the United States. The U.S., considered a strong nation, had never been attacked like this. Now, somebody with a dark plan was proving that the U.S. could be weak too.
Both World Trade Center towers fell down within two hours. The Pentagon was seriously damaged. Nearly 3,000 people died in these four terrorist attacks. Among the people who died, many died as heroes. Almost 400 New York firefighters and police died while trying to save people.
Flight 93, which people now believe was supposed to crash into the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., crashed instead into a field in Pennsylvania because of the brave acts of the passengers. Realizing that the people had been hijacked, some of the passengers fought back. Although everybody died in the crash, the passengers’ actions saved damage to the nation’s Capitol.
George W. Bush, who was president of the U.S. at the time, reacted to the attacks by ordering a “War on Terror.” The U.S. government attacked Afghanistan aiming to break up the Taliban, which is known to support al-Qaeda. This then led to the U.S. war against Iraq. Many countries around the world looked down on this move as useless and badly planned.
A year after the September 11 attacks, in November 2002, Osama bin Laden, a leader of al-Qaeda, wrote his “Letter to America.” In the letter, bin Laden said he and other al-Qaeda members had planned 9/11 as a way to punish America for their terrible treatment of Muslims and the Arab world. He said Americans had been stealing from Arab countries and taking advantage of its people for years. Osama bin Laden then became the top target for the U.S. “War on Terror.” A full-scale hunt for bin Laden began.
Ten years later, President Barack Obama became the man to command the military operation to kill Osama bin Laden. On May2, 2011, bin Laden was killed by American special forces in Pakistan.
The painful memories of September 11, still affect the American people. Many hope for a future in which such death, terror, and hate against fellow humans does not exist.


解説:
(2) 9/11
Tuesday, September 11, 2001(英語では時の表示も住所表示と同じように日本語と逆になります), is a day that changed American history(アメリカの歴史を変えた日は他にもあるという作者の意識で「a day」). On the morning of September 11(「特定の日の朝に」は「on the morning of」が使われます), the largest terrorist attack against the United States was carried out. It is also the only terrorist attack against the United States that occurred on American soil. The event shocked the world and caused a war in Iraq, which lasted almost ten years. It finally led to the assassination of Osama bin Laden, the leader of the Islamist terrorist group, al-Qaeda. The attack forever changed the way the American people think about foreign policy, the international role of the U.S., and terrorism.
The terrorist attack of September 11 took the form of four suicide attacks. Nineteen al-Qaeda terrorists took control of four American airplanes with the purpose of crashing them into buildings in New York City, and Washington, D.C. These events took place within the space of two hours on a Tuesday morning(「火曜日の朝」も「特定の日の朝」の範疇になります). What happened is known today as 9/11.
It seemed to be a normal Tuesday morning, similar to any other morning in the late summer. But at 8:45 a.m., an airplane carrying 92 passengers crashed into the north World Trade Center tower in New York. About 15 minutes later, a second plane carrying 65 people crashed into the south World Trade Center tower. As the city of New York(「・・市」はこの形を取るのが正式な表現です) went into total shock, word spread throughout the country that the United States was under attack.
Roughly half an hour after the second attack, at 9:40 a.m., a third plane carrying 64 people crashed into the Pentagon in Washington D.C., which is the home of the U.S. Department of Defense. Twenty minutes later, at 10-03 a.m., a fourth plane carrying 40 people crashed into a field in Pennsylvania about 80 miles southeast of Pittsburgh.
As the World Trade Center towers caught on fire and sent great clouds of smoke into the air, people across the world watched the terrible images on television in complete shock. Never before had such a thing happened in the United States. The U.S., considered a strong nation, had never been attacked like this. Now, somebody with a dark plan was proving that the U.S. could be weak too.
Both World Trade Center towers fell down within two hours. The Pentagon was seriously damaged. Nearly 3,000 people died in these four terrorist attacks. Among the people who died, many died as heroes. Almost 400 New York firefighters and police died while trying to save people.
Flight 93, which people now believe was supposed to crash into the U.S. Capitol in Washington, D.C., crashed instead into a field in Pennsylvania because of the brave acts of the passengers. Realizing that the people had been hijacked, some of the passengers fought back. Although everybody died in the crash, the passengers’ actions saved damage to the nation’s Capitol.
George W. Bush, who was president(役職は無冠詞)of the U.S. at the time, reacted to the attacks by ordering a “War on Terror.” The U.S. government attacked Afghanistan aiming to break up the Taliban, which is known to support al-Qaeda. This then led to the U.S. war against Iraq. Many countries around the world looked down on this move as useless and badly planned.
A year after the September 11 attacks, in November 2002, Osama bin Laden, a leader of al-Qaeda, wrote his “Letter to America.” In the letter, bin Laden said he and other al-Qaeda members had planned 9/11 as a way to punish America for their terrible treatment of Muslims and the Arab world. He said Americans had been stealing from Arab countries and taking advantage of its people for years. Osama bin Laden then became the top target for the U.S. “War on Terror.” A full-scale hunt for bin Laden began.
Ten years later, President Barack Obama became the man to command the military operation to kill Osama bin Laden. On May2, 2011, bin Laden was killed by American special forces in Pakistan.
The painful memories of September 11, still affect the American people. Many hope for a future in which such death, terror, and hate against fellow humans does not exist.

テレコンにおける定番表現集(50)

(50)「情報を追加する」のに役立つ定番表現

関係代名詞、関係副詞は情報を追加します。以下の例文は全て所謂「連続用法」のものですが、「制限用法」でも「情報を追加する」という意味では同じです。日本語では「・・・したところの・・・」と習いましたが、英語を聞く・読む時は「情報の追加」だと意識するとよいと思います。

, who … (そしてその人は・・・)
He has a sister, who works as a typist in a London bank. (彼には姉・妹があり、ロンドンの銀行でタイピストとして勤めている)

, which … (そしてそれは・・・)
Her clothes, which are all made in Paris, are beautiful. (彼女の服はどれもパリで作られたもので美しいです)
「that」も使えますが、古い使い方です。

, when … (そしてそのときに・・・)
They came at seven, when we all sat at the table. (彼らは7時に来た、それから私たち全員が食卓についた)

, where … (そしてそこで・・・)
He went to Paris, where he met her. (彼はパリに行き、そこで始めて彼女に会った)

以上を以って本シリーズは終了します。

テレコンにおける定番表現集(49)

(49)「つながり・関係に言及する」のに役立つ定番表現

connection with/between … (・・・との関係、つながり)
cut and sever connections with the firm (その会社との関係を清算する)
make a connection between the two events (2つの出来ごとを関係づける)
It seems that there is a close connection between crime and poverty. (犯罪と貧困との間には密接な関係があるようだ)

次の「relation」より具体的な関係が強い言葉です。

relation/relationship/link between/among …(・・・の間の関係、関連)
There is no relation between crime and poverty. (犯罪と貧困とにはつながりはない)
Police suspect there may be a link between the two murders. (警察は2つの殺人の間には関係があると疑っている)

relation/relationship/link to …(・・・との関係)
The pulse has a close relation to health. (脈拍は健康と密接な関係がある)

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