「社会人のための英語回路構築トレーニング自習帖」著者のブログ

Thank You for Visiting Me! 「英語赤ひげ先生」による「知っている英語」を「使える英語」にするための「理論」と「教材」を一挙に無料公開しています。

2018年03月

ダイエット(diet)

日本語で「今ダイエット中です」と言われると、著者は「減量中」のイメージを持ってしまいますが、この「diet」には主に3つの意味があります。

日常食べる物
「the staple diet」は「主食」。
「a vegetable diet」は「采食」。
「have a healthy, balanced diet」は「健康的でバランスの取れたものを食べる」。
「receive advice on diet」は「食事に関してアドバイスを貰う」。

(治療・減量・罰のための)規定食
「be on a diet」は「減量をしている」。
「diet soda」は「カロリー控えめのソーダ水」。
この使い方は、語源のギリシャ語「diata(生き方)」から「医者が指示した生き方」⇒「食事摂取規則」と転義したのではないかと辞書には載っています。

(読書・娯楽などで)習慣的なもの(「a diet of …」の形で使われます)
「a diet of TV shows」は「おなじみのテレビ番組」。

「diet」には語源(中世ラテン語の「dieta(1日の仕事)」)が異なりますが「国会」の意もあります。「The Diet is now in session.」(国会はいま開会中だ)。

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (144)

‘It’s sometimes difficult,’ I put in at one point, ‘when you’re new. They’re not … ganging up on you or anything?’
‘Oh no,’ she said. ‘Well, there’s a bit of teasing sometimes, but they mean nothing by it. They’re all nice girls here.’
We had been talking for twenty minutes or so when I rose to my feet and handed her the cardboard box I had brought in my briefcase.
‘Oh, what’s this?’ she exclaimed excitedly.
‘Jenny, it’s not … it’s not a present as such.’
She caught the warning in my voice, and looked at the box in her hands with a sudden wariness. ‘Then what is it? she asked.
‘Open it. See for yourself.’
I watched her remove the lid of the box – roughly the size of a shoe box – and stare inside. Her expression, already cautious, did not change at all. Then she reached in a hand and touched something.
‘I’m afraid,’ I said gently, ‘that’s all I could recover. Your trunk, I discovered, wasn’t lost at sea at all, but stolen along with four others from a London depot, I did what I could, but I fear the thieves simply destroyed what they couldn’t sell easily. I could find no trace of the clothes and such. Just these little things.’
She had brought out a bracelet, and was examining it carefully as though checking for blemishes. She put it back, then took out a pair of tiny silver bells and examined them in the same way. Then she put the lid back on the box and looked at me.


註釈:

‘It’s sometimes difficult,’ I put in at one point, ‘when you’re new. They’re not … ganging up on you or anything?’
「put … in」はここでは「・・・を差しはさんで言う」。「gang up on …」で「・・・を集団でいじめる」。

‘Oh no,’ she said. ‘Well, there’s a bit of teasing sometimes, but they mean nothing by it. They’re all nice girls here.’
We had been talking for twenty minutes or so when I rose to my feet and handed her the cardboard box I had brought in my briefcase.
‘Oh, what’s this?’ she exclaimed excitedly.

‘Jenny, it’s not … it’s not a present as such.’
「it’s not a present as such」は「それはプレゼントというような大層な代物ではない」。

She caught the warning in my voice, and looked at the box in her hands with a sudden wariness. ‘Then what is it? she asked.
「wariness」は「用心」。

‘Open it. See for yourself.’
「for oneself」は「独力で」と「自分のために」の意味がありますが、ここでは後者。

I watched her remove the lid of the box – roughly the size of a shoe box – and stare inside. Her expression, already cautious, did not change at all. Then she reached in a hand and touched something.

‘I’m afraid,’ I said gently, ‘that’s all I could recover. Your trunk, I discovered, wasn’t lost at sea at all, but stolen along with four others from a London depot, I did what I could, but I fear the thieves simply destroyed what they couldn’t sell easily. I could find no trace of the clothes and such. Just these little things.’
「depot」はここでは「倉庫」。「… and such」は「・・・など」。

She had brought out a bracelet, and was examining it carefully as though checking for blemishes.
「check for blemishes」はここでは「斑点がないか調べる」。

She put it back, then took out a pair of tiny silver bells and examined them in the same way. Then she put the lid back on the box and looked at me.


『今日のイデイオム』

「put … in」
「・・・を差しはさんで言う」

「gang up on …」
「・・・を集団でいじめる」

「not a … as such」
「・・・というような大層な代物ではない」

「for oneself」
「独力で」「自分のために」

「… and such」
「・・・など」

「check for …」
「・・・がないか調べる」

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (143)

I cannot help, though, recalling now that winter’s day two years ago when I first visited her at St Margaret’s. I had been conducting an investigation not far away, and this still being early in her career at the school, I had decided to call to check that all was well.
The school comprises a large manor house surrounded by several acres of grounds. Beside the house, the lawn slopes down to a lake. Perhaps on account of this latter, on each of the four occasions I have visited the school, I have found mist enveloping the place. Geese wander freely, while sullen gardeners tend to the marshy grounds. It is, by and large, a rather austere atmosphere, though the mistresses, in so far as I have seen them, present a warmer face. On that particular day, I remember a certain Miss Nutting, a kindly woman in her fifties, leading me through the chilly corridors. At one point, she paused by an alcove and, lowering her voice, said to me:
‘All things considered, Mr Banks, she’s setting in as well as can be expected. After all, there are bound to be a few difficulties for her at the start, while the other girls still see her as a newcomer. And one or two of them can be a little cruel sometimes. But by next term, that will all behind her, I’m sure.’
Jennifer was waiting for me in a large. oak-panelled room where a log was smouldering in the fireplace. The mistress left us, and Jennifer smiled rather shyly from where she was standing in front of the mantelpiece.
‘They don’t keep things very warm here,’ I said, rubbing my hands and moving towards the fire.
‘Oh, you should feel how cold it is in our dorm. Icicles on your sheets!’ She giggled.
I sat down in a chair close to the fire, but she remained standing. I had feared she might feel awkward seeing me in the different context, but she soon began to chat quite freely, about her badminton, the girls she liked, the food, which she said was ‘stew, stew, stew’.


註釈:

I cannot help, though, recalling now that winter’s day two years ago when I first visited her at St Margaret’s.
「St Margaret’s」は「は4-18歳の生徒が通う私立の女子校。イギリス国内でも特に歴史のある女子の全寮制の学校。下記にもあるように田園風景のある環境ながらセントラルロンドンまでも行きやすい。18世紀に創立された学校で、創立当初は孤児となった子供たちの学校として運営されていました」。

I had been conducting an investigation not far away, and this still being early in her career at the school, I had decided to call to check that all was well.
「career」は通例「経歴、生涯、履歴」の意。「and this still being early in her career at the school」は「そして、この時は未だ彼女がSt Margaret’sに入って日が浅かったので」。「call」はここでは「訪問する」。

The school comprises a large manor house surrounded by several acres of grounds.
「comprise」はここでは「を含む」。「manor house」は「荘園領主の邸宅」。

Beside the house, the lawn slopes down to a lake.
「slope down to …」で「・・・まで傾斜している」。

Perhaps on account of this latter, on each of the four occasions I have visited the school, I have found mist enveloping the place.
「on account of this latter」は「この芝地が湖まで傾斜している為に」。「envelop」は「包む、覆う」。

Geese wander freely, while sullen gardeners tend to the marshy grounds.
「sullen」は「むっつりした」。「tend to …」は「・・・の世話をする」。「marshy」は「じめじめした」。

It is, by and large, a rather austere atmosphere, though the mistresses, in so far as I have seen them, present a warmer face.
「by and large」は「概して」。由来は船の航海からきているといわれており、当時の船は横帆式でしたので、帆を操って追い風(large)や向かい風(by)どちらにも対応して航海することが要求されたことから出た言葉のようです。「by and large」には現在でも「風に向かったり追われたりして」の意味もあるようです。「austere」は「(人・態度・規律などが)きびしい」。「mistress」はここでは「女教師」。「in so far as」は「insofar as」と同じで「・・・する限りでは」。「in」を前置詞として捉えるならば、名詞ではなく「so far as」という副詞句が続く「特殊な」使い方ですが「from under the table」と同じ使い方だと説明できます。

On that particular day, I remember a certain Miss Nutting, a kindly woman in her fifties, leading me through the chilly corridors.
「a certain Miss Nutting」は「Nuttingさんとか言う人」。「kindly」はここでは副詞ではなく形容詞で「思いやりのある、親切な」の意。

At one point, she paused by an alcove and, lowering her voice, said to me:
「by an alcove」は「(廊下沿いの)少し引っ込んだ空間の辺りで」。

‘All things considered, Mr Banks, she’s setting in as well as can be expected.
「all things considered」は「万事を考慮してみると」。「set in」は「定着する」。「as well as can be expected」は「何とか」。

After all, there are bound to be a few difficulties for her at the start, while the other girls still see her as a newcomer.
「After all」は文頭にあって「何といっても」。

And one or two of them can be a little cruel sometimes. But by next term, that will all behind her, I’m sure.’
「cruel」は「冷酷な」。

Jennifer was waiting for me in a large. oak-panelled room where a log was smouldering in the fireplace.
「smoulder」は「くすぶる」。

The mistress left us, and Jennifer smiled rather shyly from where she was standing in front of the mantelpiece.
‘They don’t keep things very warm here,’ I said, rubbing my hands and moving towards the fire.
‘Oh, you should feel how cold it is in our dorm. Icicles on your sheets!’ She giggled.
「icicles」は「つらら」。「giggle」は「くすくす笑う」。

I sat down in a chair close to the fire, but she remained standing.

I had feared she might feel awkward seeing me in the different context, but she soon began to chat quite freely, about her badminton, the girls she liked, the food, which she said was ‘stew, stew, stew’.
「awkward」はここでは「落ち着かない」。「context」はここでは「状況」。


『今日のイデイオム』

「on account of …」
「・・・の為に」

「tend to …」
「・・・の世話をする」

「by and large」
「概して」

「set in」
「定着する」

「as well as can be expected」
「何とか」

「After all」
文頭にあって「何といっても」

キャリア(career)

今、森友問題が大きく取り上げられていますが「本庁のキャリア組は・・・」のように「キャリア」が「国家公務員試験I種(上級甲)合格者で本庁に採用されている者の俗称として使われていますが、英語の「career」とは関係がありません(どうしてそのような使い方になったのか著者は知りません)。

「career」の語源はラテン語の「carrus」で「車の路」⇒「人生路」を意味しました。現在は次のような使い方がされます。
 憤貔犬痢坊侘髻∪験供⇒歴
「have a long career in politics」は「政治家としての長い経歴がある」。
∪賁臈な職業
「be in a career」で「専門職にある」。「career diplomat」は「生え抜きの外交官」の意で決してエリートの外交官ではありません。外務省の国家公務員試験I種(上級甲)合格者は決して「career diplomat」ではありませんので、使い方を間違えると大変失礼なことになります。
職業での成功
「His career advanced rapidly.」なら「彼はとんとん拍子で出世した」。
し鼠道貪に「職業的な」
「キャリアウーマン」はこの範疇の使い方です。

但し「career」の発音は「キャリーア」の感じになります。「キャリア」は寧ろ「carrier」で「運ぶ人」の意になります。

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (142)

‘Miss Givens, I’m fully aware that in the short term, even with your best efforts, my absence will bring difficulties for Jennifer. But I wonder if you’ve considered that in the longer term, it’s almost certainly in our best interests, Jenny’s and mine, that I pursue the course I’ve just outlined to you. After all, how will Jennifer ever be able to love and respect a guardian who she knew had turned away from his most solemn duty when the call finally came? Whatever she may wish for now, she’ll come to have only contempt for me when she’s older. And what good would that do either of us?’
Miss Givens gazed at me steadily, then said: ‘You have a point, Mr Banks.’ Then she added: ‘But she will miss you, Mr Banks, none the less.’
‘Yes, Yes,’ I dare say so. But Miss Givens, don’t you see?’ I might have raised my voice at this point. ‘Don’t you see how very urgent things have got? The growing turmoil all over the world? I have to go!’
‘Of course, Mr Banks.’
‘I’m sorry. I do apologise. I’m somewhat overwrought tonight. All in all, it’s been quite a day.’
‘Would you like me to tell her?’ Miss Givens asked.
I thought about this, then shock my head. ‘No, I’ll speak to her. I’ll speak to her in good time. I’d appreciate it if you said nothing to her until I’ve seen her.’
I had intended last night to talk to Jennifer today. But on further thought, I feel to do so might be premature; it might, moreover, quite unnecessarily sully her current very positive mood concerning her forthcoming school term. It will be better, all in all, to leave the matter for now, and I will be able to go and see her at her school once I have finalized my arrangements. Jennifer is a child of remarkable spirit, and there is no reason to suppose she would be so devastated just on account of my departure.


註釈:

‘Miss Givens, I’m fully aware that in the short term, even with your best efforts, my absence will bring difficulties for Jennifer.

But I wonder if you’ve considered that in the longer term, it’s almost certainly in our best interests, Jenny’s and mine, that I pursue the course I’ve just outlined to you.
「in our best interests」は「我々の最善の利益の中にある」⇒「一番我々の為になる」。

After all, how will Jennifer ever be able to love and respect a guardian who she knew had turned away from his most solemn duty when the call finally came?
「guardian」は「保護者」。「turn away from …」で「・・・から顔をそむける」。「solemn」はここでは「重大な」。「the call」は「神のおぼしめし」。

Whatever she may wish for now, she’ll come to have only contempt for me when she’s older.
「contempt」は「軽蔑」。

And what good would that do either of us?’
「good」はここでは「役に立つこと」。「that」は「Whatever she may wish for now」を受けています。「do」はここでは「・・・に・・・をもたらす」。

Miss Givens gazed at me steadily, then said: ‘You have a point, Mr Banks.’
「steadily」はここでは「じっと」。「have a point」はここでは「一理ある」。

Then she added: ‘But she will miss you, Mr Banks, none the less.’
「none the less」は「それにも拘わらず」。

‘Yes, Yes,’ I dare say so. But Miss Givens, don’t you see?’ I might have raised my voice at this point. ‘Don’t you see how very urgent things have got? The growing turmoil all over the world? I have to go!’
「turmoil」は「苦悩」。

‘Of course, Mr Banks.’

‘I’m sorry. I do apologise. I’m somewhat overwrought tonight. All in all, it’s been quite a day.’
「somewhat」は「いくぶん」。「overwrought」は「興奮した」。「all in all」は「(すべてのことを考え合わせて、結論として)概して」。「quite a day」は「本当にすばらしい1日」。

‘Would you like me to tell her?’ Miss Givens asked.
I thought about this, then shock my head. ‘No, I’ll speak to her. I’ll speak to her in good time. I’d appreciate it if you said nothing to her until I’ve seen her.’
I had intended last night to talk to Jennifer today.

But on further thought, I feel to do so might be premature; it might, moreover, quite unnecessarily sully her current very positive mood concerning her forthcoming school term.
「I feel」と現在形になっているのは、主人公が述べているこの時点で事実であると認識しているからです。「sully」は「を妨げる」。「forthcoming」はここでは「来たるべき」。

It will be better, all in all, to leave the matter for now, and I will be able to go and see her at her school once I have finalized my arrangements.

Jennifer is a child of remarkable spirit, and there is no reason to suppose she would be so devastated just on account of my departure.
「remarkable」はここでは「すばらしい」。「devastated」は「打ちひしがれた」。


『今日のイデイオム』

「in our best interests」
「我々の最善の利益の中にある」⇒「一番我々の為になる」

「turn away from …」
「・・・から顔をそむける」

「have a point」
「一理ある」

「none the less」
「それにも拘わらず」

「quite a day」
「本当にすばらしい1日」
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