「社会人のための英語回路構築トレーニング自習帖」著者のブログ

Thank You for Visiting Me! 「英語赤ひげ先生」による「知っている英語」を「使える英語」にするための「理論」と「教材」を一挙に無料公開しています。

2018年04月

ナイター(night game)

所謂「和製英語」の典型例として扱われているのが、この「ナイター」です。

昼間の試合のことは「デイ ゲーム」と「正しく」言いますので、何故「ナイト ゲーム」と命名しなかったのか不思議です。

日本においての初のプロ野球ナイター開催は、1948年8月17日に横浜ゲーリッグ球場(現在の横浜スタジアムとほぼ同じ位置)で行われた読売ジャイアンツ対中日ドラゴンズの試合だそうです。当時ゲーリッグ球場はアメリカ軍接収下にあったため照明設備があり、20時08分から開催されたそうです。ですから「ナイター」という言葉は比較的新しい言葉です。

英語には「nighter」という単語は存在しませんが「all-nighter」という単語は存在します。意味は「一晩中続くもの(演劇・勉強・催し物など)、夜更かし、終夜営業、徹夜する人」です。

「ナイト ゲーム」は2語なのに「ナイター」は1語で、日本人は言葉を縮小して使うのが得意なことと音の響きがよかったので「ナイター」を敢えて採用したのではないかと思う次題です。

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (163)

‘Oh yes. Well anyway, it’s so ghastly. What are the Chinese doing, tearing at each other’s throats at a time like this? You’d think the Reds and the government might put up a united front against the Japanese just for a little while at least.’
‘I suppose hatred between communists and nationalists runs pretty deep.’ ‘That’s what Cecil says. Oh, look at him, how can he play like that?’
I followed her gaze and saw that Sir Cecil – who had his back to us – had slumped over to one side, so that most of his weight was on the table. There seemed every possibility of his sliding off the chair altogether.
Sarah looked at me a little awkwardly. Then rising, she went over to him, placed a hand on each of his shoulders, and spoke gently into his ear. Sir Cecil came awake and glanced about him. It is possible that at this point I took my gaze off them for a second, for I am not at all certain what exactly happened next. I saw Sarah reel back, as though she had been struck, and for a second she seemed about to lose her balance, but then recovered. Sir Cecil, when I scrutinised his back, was sitting upright again, concentrating on the game, and I could not say it was he who had caused Sarah to stumble.
She saw me staring at her, and smiling, came back and sat down beside me again.
‘He’s tired,’ she said. ‘He has so much energy. But at his age, he really needs to rest more.’
‘Do the two of you often come to this place?’
She nodded. ‘And a few others very similar. Cecil doesn’t much like those big glittering places. He doesn’t think it’s possible to come out a winner in those places.’
‘Do you always accompany him on these expeditions?’
‘Someone has to look after him. He’s not a young man, you see. Oh, I don’t mind it. It’s rather exciting. It’s what this city’s all about really.’


註釈:

‘Oh yes. Well anyway, it’s so ghastly. What are the Chinese doing, tearing at each other’s throats at a time like this? You’d think the Reds and the government might put up a united front against the Japanese just for a little while at least.’
「ghastly」は「身の毛のよだつほど恐ろしい」。「while」はここでは「時間」。当時の中国では蒋介石の国民政府(the government)と共産党(the Reds)とは未だ手を結んでいなかった。「united front」は「共同戦線」。

‘I suppose hatred between communists and nationalists runs pretty deep.’
「hatred between communists and nationalists runs pretty deep」の「run」は所謂「SVC文型」で「・・・になる」の意。「憎しみは結構深くなっている」。

‘That’s what Cecil says. Oh, look at him, how can he play like that?’

I followed her gaze and saw that Sir Cecil – who had his back to us – had slumped over to one side, so that most of his weight was on the table.
「gaze」は「注視、凝視」。「slumped over to one side」は「前かがみになっていた」。

There seemed every possibility of his sliding off the chair altogether.

Sarah looked at me a little awkwardly.
「awkwardly」はここでは「きまり悪そうに」。

Then rising, she went over to him, placed a hand on each of his shoulders, and spoke gently into his ear. Sir Cecil came awake and glanced about him. It is possible that at this point I took my gaze off them for a second, for I am not at all certain what exactly happened next.

I saw Sarah reel back, as though she had been struck, and for a second she seemed about to lose her balance, but then recovered.
「reel」はここでは「よろめく」。

Sir Cecil, when I scrutinised his back, was sitting upright again, concentrating on the game, and I could not say it was he who had caused Sarah to stumble.
「scrutinise」は「を綿密に調べる」。「stumble」は「つまずく」。

She saw me staring at her, and smiling, came back and sat down beside me again.
‘He’s tired,’ she said. ‘He has so much energy. But at his age, he really needs to rest more.’
‘Do the two of you often come to this place?’
She nodded. ‘And a few others very similar.

Cecil doesn’t much like those big glittering places.
「glittering」は「きらきら輝く」。

He doesn’t think it’s possible to come out a winner in those places.’
「come out a winner」は「結果として勝者になる」の意。

‘Do you always accompany him on these expeditions?’
「expedition」は「遠征」。

‘Someone has to look after him. He’s not a young man, you see. Oh, I don’t mind it. It’s rather exciting.

It’s what this city’s all about really.’
「遠征が刺激的であるということはこの上海の町が本当にその為にある」⇒「上海の町は本当に刺激的でなくっちゃね」。


『今日のイデイオム』

「come out …」
「結果として・・・になる」

「be what … is all about」
「(人・物)はそのためにある、・・・の意義はそこにある」

ケア(care)

日本語の「ケア」は「ケアマネ」という言葉に使われているように「介護」の意と捉えられていると思います。「ケアマネ」は「ケアマネジャー(care manager)」の省略形です。著者も母の介護で「ケアマネ」さんのお世話になっています。正式には「介護支援専門員」と呼ばれ『介護保険制度においてケアマネジメントを実施する有資格者』のこと。要支援・要介護認定者およびその家族からの相談を受け、介護サービスの給付計画(ケアプラン)を作成し、自治体や他の介護サービス事業者との連絡、調整等を行います。

なお、日本語の「介護ヘルパー」に近いのは、辞書によれば「home health aide」「home help」等。

名詞としての「care」は
「the process of caring for somebody/something and providing what they need for their health or protection」
「attention or thought that you give to something that you are doing so that you will do it well and avoid mistakes or damage」
を意味し、広い意味では、世話や配慮、気配り、手入れ、メンテナンスなどをすることをいいます。乳幼児の世話から愛玩動物の世話、衣服の管理、髪や肌の手入れまで、すべて「ケア」です。「肌の手入れ」は「skin care」。「・・・の世話をする」は「take care of …」。

動詞としての「care」は、更に意味が広がって次のような意味でも使われます。
「反対する、いやと思う」:「Do you care if I smoke?」は「もし私がタバコを吸ったらあなたは介護してくれますか?」ではなく「タバコを吸ってもいいですか?」の意。
「気にする」:「Who cares?」は「誰が気にするか⇒誰も気にしない」
「・・・したいと思う」:「(Would you) Care to go for a walk?」は「散歩は如何ですか?」

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (162)

She gave a start when I sat down beside her. ‘Oh, Christopher. What are you doing here?’
‘I was just passing by. I’m sorry. I didn’t mean to startle you.’
‘Just passing by?’ This place? I don’t believe it. You’ve been pursuing us.’
We were speaking in lowered tones so as not to distract the players at the table. From somewhere in the building, I could hear faintly someone practising a trumpet.
‘I have to confess,’ I said, ‘I did happen to hear you’d come here. And since I was walking past …’
‘Oh, Christopher, you were lonely.’
‘Hardly. But I’ve had rather gloomy day, and I felt like unwinding a little, that’s all.
Though I must admit, I’d have hesitated if I’d known you were in a place like this.’
‘Don’t be cruel. Cecil and I, we enjoy being low-life. It’s fun. It’s all part of what Shanghai’s about. Now tell me about your gloomy day. You’re looking despondent. No breakthrough yet on your case. I suppose.’
‘No breakthrough, but I’m not despondent. Things are starting to take shape.’
When I then began to describe her how I had spent over two hours on my hands and knees in a rotting boat in which three decaying corpses had been found, she pulled a face a face and stopped me.’
‘It’s all so ghastly. Someone was saying at the tennis club today, the bodies all had their arms and legs cut off. Is that true?’
‘I’m afraid so.’
She pulled another face. ‘It’s too ghastly for words. But these were Chinese factory workers, weren’t they? Surely, they can’t have much to do with … with your parents.’
  ‘Actually, I believe this crime has a very significant bearing on my parents’ case.’
‘Really? They were saying at the tennis club these murders are all part of this Yellow Rat business. They’re saying the victims were the Yellow Rat’s nearest and dearest.’
‘Yellow Snake.’
‘Pardon?’
‘The communist informer. Yellow Snake.’


註釈:

She gave a start when I sat down beside her. ‘Oh, Christopher. What are you doing here?’
「a start」は「(驚いたりして)突然動き出すこと、はっとすること」。「gave a start」で「ぎくっとした」。

‘I was just passing by. I’m sorry. I didn’t mean to startle you.’
「pass by」は「通り過ぎる」。「startle」は「をびっくりさせる」。

‘Just passing by?’ This place? I don’t believe it. You’ve been pursuing us.’
「pursue」はここでは「を追う」。冬のオリンピックで日本が金メダルを取った「パシュート」は、この名詞形である「pursuit」です。

We were speaking in lowered tones so as not to distract the players at the table.
「distract」はここでは「の気をそらす」。

From somewhere in the building, I could hear faintly someone practising a trumpet.
「ピアノを練習する」は辞書には「practice/practice the piano」と出ています。「楽器を練習する」という場合通例「the」が使われるのは「その家・施設に備え付けてある」という意識がるだけで、このように「practising a trumpet」という表現も時々見かけます。トランペットは「備え付け」の意識がないからかも知れません。

‘I have to confess,’ I said, ‘I did happen to hear you’d come here. And since I was walking past …’
「confess」は「白状する」。

‘Oh, Christopher, you were lonely.’
「lonely」は「孤独で寂しい」。

‘Hardly. But I’ve had rather a gloomy day, and I felt like unwinding a little, that’s all.
「gloomy」は「憂鬱な」。「unwind」は「くつろぐ」。

Though I must admit, I’d have hesitated if I’d known you were in a place like this.’

‘Don’t be cruel. Cecil and I, we enjoy being low-life. It’s fun. It’s all part of what Shanghai’s about.
「cruel」は「冷酷な」。「low-life」は「社会の下層の」。「be what … is about …」で「・・・はそのためにある」。この「about」は「に従事している」の意(What is he about? = What is he doing?)

Now tell me about your gloomy day. You’re looking despondent. No breakthrough yet on your case. I suppose.’
「despondent」は「元気のない」。「breakthrough」は「突破口」。

‘No breakthrough, but I’m not despondent. Things are starting to take shape.’
「take shape」は「はっきりした形を取る」。

When I then began to describe her how I had spent over two hours on my hands and knees in a rotting boat in which three decaying corpses had been found, she pulled a face a face and stopped me.’
「on one’s hands and knees」は「四つん這いになって」。「decaying」は「腐敗しかけた」。「corpse」は「死体」。「pull a face」は「しかめっ面をする」。

‘It’s all so ghastly. Someone was saying at the tennis club today, the bodies all had their arms and legs cut off. Is that true?’
「ghastly」は「身の毛がよだつほど恐ろしい」。

‘I’m afraid so.’
She pulled another face. ‘It’s too ghastly for words. But these were Chinese factory workers, weren’t they? Surely, they can’t have much to do with … with your parents.’
「have to do with …」で「・・・と関係がある」

  ‘Actually, I believe this crime has a very significant bearing on my parents’ case.’
「significant」は「重大な」。「bearing」はここでは「関係」。

‘Really? They were saying at the tennis club these murders are all part of this Yellow Rat business.
「business」はここでは「目的行動、確固たる行為」。

They’re saying the victims were the Yellow Rat’s nearest and dearest.’
「victim」は「犠牲者」。

‘Yellow Snake.’
‘Pardon?’

‘The communist informer. Yellow Snake.’
「informer」は「情報提供者」。


『今日のイデイオム』

「give a start」
「ぎくっとする」

「pass by」
「通り過ぎる」

「be what … is about …」
「・・・はそのためにある」

「take shape」
「はっきりした形を取る」

「on one’s hands and knees」
「四つん這いになって」

「pull a face」
「しかめっ面をする」

‘It’s all so ghastly. Someone was saying at the tennis club today, the bodies all had their arms and legs cut off. Is that true?’
「ghastly」は「身の毛がよだつほど恐ろしい」。

‘I’m afraid so.’
She pulled another face. ‘It’s too ghastly for words. But these were Chinese factory workers, weren’t they? Surely, they can’t have much to do with … with your parents.’
「have to do with …」で「・・・と関係がある」

ゴロ(grounder)

日本の野球はアメリカから輸入されました。そのせいで野球用語は英語をそのまま日本語にしたものが殆どです。

ストライク(strike)、ストライクゾーン(strike zone)
ボール(ball)
アウト(out)
セーフ(safe)
フライ(fly)
ヒット(hit)、テキサスヒット(a Texas leaguer hit)⇒語源は諸説ありますが、「あるTexas Leagueにいた地元では有名な選手が大リーグ入りを果たし、初打席から7本連続でテキサスヒットを打った」というのが有力です。

ところが「ゴロ」は英語では「grounder」です。語源はこの「grounder」 が転じたとも、擬音語のゴロゴロが転じたとも言われています。いくら当時の日本人が英語の音に弱かったとしても「grounder」が「ゴロ」に聞こえたとは思えません。「grounder」が「二重母音」を含むので聞き取りに難儀し、ボールが「ゴロゴロ」と転がることから、「まあいいや、ゴロにしよう」ということになったのではないでしょうか。「an easy grounder(平凡なゴロ)」的解説でスイマセン。
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