「社会人のための英語回路構築トレーニング自習帖」著者のブログ

Thank You for Visiting Me! 「英語赤ひげ先生」による「知っている英語」を「使える英語」にするための「理論」と「教材」を一挙に無料公開しています。

2018年08月

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (225)

For a moment or two, I went on gazing through the glasses in silence. Then I said: ‘Lieutenant, that house, the house where my parents are being held. Will I be able to see it from up here?’
His hand touched my shoulder briefly, though I did not take my eyes from the binoculars.
‘Do you see, Mr Banks, the remains of that tower standing to the left? It looks like one of those Easter Island figures. Yes, yes, that’s it. If you draw a line from that over to the remains of that large black building to the right, the old textile warehouse, that was, this morning, the line to which our men had beaten back the Japanese. The house where your parents are being held is roughly level with that tall chimney on your left. If you draw a line, very level with it across the warren, until you come to just a little left of where we are now standing. Yes, yes …’
‘You mean near that roof, the one with the eaves pointing up into a kind of arch …’
‘Yes, that’s it. Of course, I cannot say with certainty. But according to those directions you showed me, that is roughly where the house is.’
I stared through the field glasses at that particular roof. For some time I could not stop staring, even though I was conscious of keeping the lieutenant from his duties. After a while, it was the lieutenant who said:
‘It must feel strange. To think you might be looking at the very house containing your parents.’
‘Yes. Yes, it does feel a little strange.’
‘Of course, it might not be that house. That was simply a guess on my part. But it will be somewhere very near it. That tall chimney I showed you. Mr Banks. The locals refer to it as the East Furnace. The chimney you can see much closer to us, almost directly in line with the other one, belongs to the West Furnace. Before the fighting, the inhabitants used to burn their refuse at one or other of these places. I would advise you, sir, to use the furnaces as your landmarks once you are within the warren. Otherwise it is hard for a stranger to keep his bearings. Look again carefully at the far chimney, sir. Remember, the house you seek is only a little way away from it, in a direct line due south.


註釈:

For a moment or two, I went on gazing through the glasses in silence. Then I said: ‘Lieutenant, that house, the house where my parents are being held. Will I be able to see it from up here?’
His hand touched my shoulder briefly, though I did not take my eyes from the binoculars.

‘Do you see, Mr Banks, the remains of that tower standing to the left?
「remains」はここでは「遺物」。

It looks like one of those Easter Island figures.
「Easter Island figures」は「イースター島の人物像」⇒「モアイ」(先住民が祖先の像を刻んだものと考えられています。数百体が現存)。

Yes, yes, that’s it.

If you draw a line from that over to the remains of that large black building to the right, the old textile warehouse, that was, this morning, the line to which our men had beaten back the Japanese.
「textile」は「織物」。

The house where your parents are being held is roughly level with that tall chimney on your left.
「level with …」は「・・・と同じ高さの」。

If you draw a line, very level with it across the warren, until you come to just a little left of where we are now standing. Yes, yes …’
「warren」は「ごみごみした地域」。

‘You mean near that roof, the one with the eaves pointing up into a kind of arch …’
「eaves」は「家の軒」。

‘Yes, that’s it. Of course, I cannot say with certainty. But according to those directions you showed me, that is roughly where the house is.’
I stared through the field glasses at that particular roof. For some time I could not stop staring, even though I was conscious of keeping the lieutenant from his duties. After a while, it was the lieutenant who said:
‘It must feel strange. To think you might be looking at the very house containing your parents.’
‘Yes. Yes, it does feel a little strange.’
‘Of course, it might not be that house. That was simply a guess on my part. But it will be somewhere very near it. That tall chimney I showed you. Mr Banks. The locals refer to it as the East Furnace. The chimney you can see much closer to us, almost directly in line with the other one, belongs to the West Furnace.

Before the fighting, the inhabitants used to burn their refuse at one or other of these places.
「inhabitant」は「住民」。「refuse」はここでは名詞で「廃物」。

I would advise you, sir, to use the furnaces as your landmarks once you are within the warren.

Otherwise it is hard for a stranger to keep his bearings.
「one’s bearings」は「自己の位置」。

Look again carefully at the far chimney, sir. Remember, the house you seek is only a little way away from it, in a direct line due south.
「due south」は「真南」。「due」は方位を示す副詞の前で「正確に」の意になります。


『今日のイデイオム』

「level with …」
「・・・と同じ高さの」

「one’s bearings」
「自己の位置」

「due south」
「真南」

パート(part-timer / part-time worker)

働き方が多様化し、最近は「パート」で働く人が増えてきました。

英語の「part」は「部分」の意ですので「part」だけでは日本語の「パート」の意とはなりません。

「パートで働く」は通例「work part-time」とします。「part-time」には「パートタイムの」「非常勤の」「定時制の」の意の形容詞と「パートタイムで」「非常勤で」の意の副詞の両方の使い方があります。「work part-time」の「part-time」は副詞です。対立する概念は「full-time」。
a part-time teacher : 非常勤講師
a part-time high school : 定時制高校
I have a part-time job tonight. : 今晩アルバイトがある

「part-time」に「・・・する人」の意を付与する「-er」をつけて名詞化したのが「part-timer」です。
My mother works as a part-timer at the supermarket. : 母はスーパーへパートに出ている

因みに「非正規社員」は「non-regular employee」と訳されることが多いですが、これでは会社に来たり来なかったりのイメージがあり実態とはずれています。「temporary staff」の方がイメージは近いと思います。「派遣会社」は「temporary employment agency」。

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (224)

‘But this is no shanty town,’ the lieutenant’s voice was continuing. ‘Even if the partitions erected by the tenants are flimsy, the essential structure, the warren itself, is brick. This proved crucial in ’32 when the Japanese attacked, and it is proving so to us now.’
‘I can see that,’ I said. A solid warren defended by soldiers. No easy prospect for the Japanese, even with their modern weapons.’
‘You are right. The Japanese weaponry, even their training, counts for almost nothing down there. Fighting is reduced to rifles, bayonets, knives, pistols, spades, meat cleavers. The Japanese line, in the past week, has actually been pushed back. You see that smoke, Mr Banks? That point was held by the enemy only last week. But now we have pushed them back.’
‘Are there civilians still living down there?’
‘There are indeed. You may not believe it, but even close to the front, some of the houses in the warren are still occupied. This makes it even harder for the Japanese. They cannot shell indiscriminately. They know the Western powers are watching and they fear ruthlessness will have a cost.’
‘Who knows? Chiang Kai-shek may send us reinforcements. Or the Japanese might decide to give up and redeploy, concentrate instead of Nanking or Chunking. It is by no means certain we will not still be victorious. But the fighting recently has cost us dearly. If you move your field glasses to the left, Mr Banks. Now, so you see that road? Yes? That road is known locally as Pig’s Alley. It doesn’t look an impressive road, but now it is very important to the outcome. As you see, that is the one road that runs along the edge of the warren. At the moment, our troops have sealed it off, and have managed to keep the Japanese out. If they are able to come down that road, the warren can be penetrated all along the side. There will be no point in our attempting to hold out. We will have been flanked. You asked for men to accompany you to the house where your parents are. The men who will accompany you would otherwise have been deployed defending the barricade at the top of Pigs’ Alley. The last few days, the fighting there has become desperate. Meanwhile, of course, we are having also to hold our line across the warren.’
‘From up here, you wouldn’t think there was so much going on down there.’
‘Indeed. But I can assure you, inside the warren, things are now very bad. I tell you this, Mr Banks, since you are intending to go in there.’


註釈:

‘But this is no shanty town,’ the lieutenant’s voice was continuing.
「shanty」は「掘っ立て小屋」。

‘Even if the partitions erected by the tenants are flimsy, the essential structure, the warren itself, is brick.
「erect」はここでは「を立てる」。「flimsy」は「軽くて薄い」。

This proved crucial in ’32 when the Japanese attacked, and it is proving so to us now.’
「crucial」はここでは「極めて重要な」。

‘I can see that,’ I said.

A solid warren defended by soldiers.
「solid」はここでは「堅固な」。

No easy prospect for the Japanese, even with their modern weapons.’

‘You are right. The Japanese weaponry, even their training, counts for almost nothing down there.
「weaponry」は「兵器類」。「count for …」は「・・・に重要である」。

Fighting is reduced to rifles, bayonets, knives, pistols, spades, meat cleavers.
「bayonet」は「銃剣」。「meat cleaver」は「肉切り包丁」。

The Japanese line, in the past week, has actually been pushed back. You see that smoke, Mr Banks? That point was held by the enemy only last week. But now we have pushed them back.’
‘Are there civilians still living down there?’
‘There are indeed.

You may not believe it, but even close to the front, some of the houses in the warren are still occupied.
「occupy」は「に住む」。

This makes it even harder for the Japanese.

They cannot shell indiscriminately.
「shell」はここでは「を砲撃する」。「indiscriminately」は「無差別に」。

They know the Western powers are watching and they fear ruthlessness will have a cost.’
「powers」は「列強」。「ruthlessness」は「無慈悲、冷酷」。

‘Who knows? Chiang Kai-shek may send us reinforcements.
「Chiang Kai-shek」は「蒋介石」。「reinforcements」は「援軍」。

Or the Japanese might decide to give up and redeploy, concentrate instead of Nanking or Chunking.
「redeploy」は「配置換えする」。「Nanking」は「南京」。「Chunking」は「重慶」。

It is by no means certain we will not still be victorious.
「by no means」は「決して・・・でない」。「victorious」は「勝利を得た」。

But the fighting recently has cost us dearly.
「dearly」はここでは「とても、非常に」。

If you move your field glasses to the left, Mr Banks.
ここの「if」は「・・・して下さい」の意。

Now, so you see that road? Yes? That road is known locally as Pig’s Alley.

It doesn’t look an impressive road, but now it is very important to the outcome.
「impressive」は「強い印象を与える」。「outcome」は「成り行きが注目される物・事の結果」。

As you see, that is the one road that runs along the edge of the warren. At the moment, our troops have sealed it off, and have managed to keep the Japanese out.

If they are able to come down that road, the warren can be penetrated all along the side.
「penetrate」は「(敵の領域)に入り込む」。

There will be no point in our attempting to hold out.
「hold out」は「持ちこたえる」。

We will have been flanked.
「flank」は「の側面を攻撃する」。

You asked for men to accompany you to the house where your parents are.

The men who will accompany you would otherwise have been deployed defending the barricade at the top of Pigs’ Alley.
「deploy」はここでは「配置につかせる」。

The last few days, the fighting there has become desperate.
「desperate」は「絶望的な」。

Meanwhile, of course, we are having also to hold our line across the warren.’
‘From up here, you wouldn’t think there was so much going on down there.’
‘Indeed. But I can assure you, inside the warren, things are now very bad. I tell you this, Mr Banks, since you are intending to go in there.’


『今日のイデイオム』

「count for …」は「・・・に重要である」。

「by no means」
「決して・・・でない」

「hold out」
「持ちこたえる」

ステルス(stealth)

日本が2030年をメドに導入する次期戦闘機は、米防衛大手ロッキード・マーチン社が防衛省に提出した開発計画ではF22の改良らしいです。このF22はレーダーや赤外線探知装置などからの隠密性が極めて高いステルス戦闘機だそうです。

「stealth」は「steal」という動詞に抽象名詞を作る語尾「th」をつけたもの。「birth」(誕生)は「bear+th」。「length」は「long+th」(形容詞+th)。

「stealには「盗む」の意の他、「to move secretly and quietly so that other people do not notice you(人に気づかれないように移動する)」の意もあります。ここから「stealth」は「ひそかなやり方」「忍び歩き」の意の他、形容詞として名詞の前でのみ使われ「レーダーで探知し難い」の意になります。
The government was accused of trying to introduce the tax by stealth.
Lions rely on stealth when hunting.
F22 is a stealth bomber.

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (223)

‘Almost certainly not. Foreigners rarely see such places unless they are missionaries. Or perhaps communists. I am Chinese, but I too, like many of my peers, was never permitted to go near such places. I knew almost nothing about the warren until ’32, the last time we fought the Japanese. You would not believe human beings could live like that. It is like an ant’s nest. Those houses, they were intended for the poorest people. Houses with tiny rooms, row after row, back to back. A warren. If you look carefully, you may see the lanes. Little alleys just wide enough to allow the people to get into their homes. At the back, the houses have no windows at all. The rear rooms are black holes, backing on to the houses behind. Forgive me, I am telling you this for a good reason, as you will see. The rooms were made small because they were for the poor. There was a time when seven or eight people shared such a room. Then as the years went on, families were forced to make partitions, even within these small rooms, to share the rent with another family. And if they still couldn’t pay the landlords, they would partition the room further. I remember seeing tiny black closets divided four times, each with a family in it. You do not believe this, Mr Banks, that human beings can live like this?’
‘It does seem unbelievable, but if you’ve seen these conditions yourself, Lieutenant …’
‘When the fight against the Japanese is over, Mr Banks, I will consider giving my services to communists. You think that is a dangerous thing to say? There are many officers who would rather fight under the communists than under Chiang.’
I moved the binoculars over the dense mass of shabby roofs. I could see now that many of them were broken through. I could decipher, moreover, the lanes the lieutenant had mentioned, narrow passageways threading here and there into the tenements.


註釈:

‘Almost certainly not.
「almost certainly」は「九分九厘」くらいのニュアンス。

Foreigners rarely see such places unless they are missionaries.
「missionary」は「伝道師(プロテスタント)、宣教師(カトリック)」。

Or perhaps communists.

I am Chinese, but I too, like many of my peers, was never permitted to go near such places.
「peer」はここでは「同僚」。

I knew almost nothing about the warren until ’32, the last time we fought the Japanese.
所謂「満州事変」は1931.9.18−1932.2.18で関東軍が中国の東北全域を支配しました。「warren」は「ごみごみした地域」の意ですが最初から「the」がついているので地域の人なら誰でもしっている「ごみごみした地域⇒スラム街」を指しています。

You would not believe human beings could live like that. It is like an ant’s nest. Those houses, they were intended for the poorest people. Houses with tiny rooms, row after row, back to back. A warren. If you look carefully, you may see the lanes. Little alleys just wide enough to allow the people to get into their homes. At the back, the houses have no windows at all.

The rear rooms are black holes, backing on to the houses behind.
「back on to …」で「・・・と背後で接する」。

Forgive me, I am telling you this for a good reason, as you will see. The rooms were made small because they were for the poor. There was a time when seven or eight people shared such a room. Then as the years went on, families were forced to make partitions, even within these small rooms, to share the rent with another family.

And if they still couldn’t pay the landlords, they would partition the room further.
「landlord」は「家主」。

I remember seeing tiny black closets divided four times, each with a family in it. You do not believe this, Mr Banks, that human beings can live like this?’
‘It does seem unbelievable, but if you’ve seen these conditions yourself, Lieutenant …’
‘When the fight against the Japanese is over, Mr Banks, I will consider giving my services to communists. You think that is a dangerous thing to say?

There are many officers who would rather fight under the communists than under Chiang.’
「officer」は「将校」。「Chiang」は「蒋介石」。

I moved the binoculars over the dense mass of shabby roofs.
「binoculars」は「双眼鏡」。「dense」は「密集した」。「mass」は「固まり」。「shabby」はここでは「古ぼけた」。

I could see now that many of them were broken through.

I could decipher, moreover, the lanes the lieutenant had mentioned, narrow passageways threading here and there into the tenements.
「decipher」は「を判読する」。「passageway」はここでは「通路」。「thread」は「縫うように通る」。「tenement」はここでは「スラム街にある安アパート」。


『今日のイデイオム』

「almost certainly」
「九分九厘」

「back on to …」
「・・・と背後で接する」
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