「社会人のための英語回路構築トレーニング自習帖」著者のブログ

Thank You for Visiting Me! 「英語赤ひげ先生」による「知っている英語」を「使える英語」にするための「理論」と「教材」を一挙に無料公開しています。

2018年10月

グランプリ(grand prix)

「グランプリ(grand prix)」は「大賞、最高賞」のことですが、発音から元々はフランス語と思われます。

先日東京駅八重洲南口にある「グラントウキョウ サウスタワー」で行われたある催しに参加しました。

家の近くに「グランツリー武蔵小杉」がありますが、この英語表示は「Grand Tree Musashikosugi」ですので、著者は「グラントウキョウ サウスタワー」の「英語」表示は「Grand Tokyo South Tower」だと予想していましたが、行ってみたら「Gran Tokyo South Tower」でした。

しかしアメリカにいた時「granny」(= grandmother)は耳にしたことはありましたが、「gran」はありません。辞書を引いてみると「イギリスの小児語」では「Gran」が使われるようですが、建物にこの意で使うのは不自然です。

そこでGoogle 翻訳で種々確かめてみたら、スペイン語に「gran」がありました。意味は「素晴らしい」です。英語の「grand」に相当するのではないかと推測しています。「South Tower」は英語ですので「Gran Tokyo」はちょっと「格好をつけたおしゃれな」イメージを狙ったものかもしれません。

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (254)

‘Look, come here,’ I said in a near-whisper. This has to be the house. It can’t be any other.’
Akira did not move, but gave a deep sigh. ‘Christopher. You friend. I like very much.’
‘Keep your voice down. Akira, we’ve arrived. It’s this house. I can feel it now in my bones.’
‘Christopher …’ With an effort he rose to his feet and came slowly over the ground. When he was beside me, I pointed out the house. The morning sun shining down into the alley was causing bright streaks to fall across its front.
‘There, Akira. There it is.’
He sat down by my feet and gave another sigh. ‘Christopher. My friend. You must think very carefully. It is many years. Many, many years now …’
‘Isn’t it odd,’ I remarked, ‘how the fighting hardly touched that house? The house with my parents inside.’
Uttering these words, I suddenly felt almost overwhelmed. But I collected myself and said: ‘Now, Akira, we have to go in. We’ll do it together, arm in arm. Just like that other time, going into Ling Tien’s room. You remember, Akira?’
‘Christopher. My dear friend. You must think very carefully. It is many, many years. My friend, please, you listen. Perhaps mother and father. It is now so many years. ‘
‘We’ll go in now together. Then as soon as we’ve done what we have to do, we’ll get you to proper medical help, I promise. In fact, it’s possible there’ll be something, some first aid, in that house. At least some clean water, perhaps bandages. My mother will be able to look at your injury, perhaps put on a fresh dressing for you. Don’t worry, you’ll be fine in no time.’
‘Christopher. You must think very carefully. So many years go by …’


註釈:

‘Look, come here,’ I said in a near-whisper.
「near-」は「ほぼ、殆ど」の意。

This has to be the house. It can’t be any other.’
「other」はここでは代名詞で「違った物」の意。

Akira did not move, but gave a deep sigh. ‘Christopher. You friend. I like very much.’
‘Keep your voice down. Akira, we’ve arrived. It’s this house. I can feel it now in my bones.’
‘Christopher …’ With an effort he rose to his feet and came slowly over the ground.

When he was beside me, I pointed out the house.
「point out」はここでは「を指し示す」。

The morning sun shining down into the alley was causing bright streaks to fall across its front.
「streak」はここでは「筋、線」。

‘There, Akira. There it is.’
「There it is.」は「さあどうぞ」ではなく「あそこに、捜していた家がある」の意。

He sat down by my feet and gave another sigh. ‘Christopher. My friend. You must think very carefully. It is many years. Many, many years now …’

‘Isn’t it odd,’ I remarked, ‘how the fighting hardly touched that house? The house with my parents inside.’
「remark」はここでは伝達動詞として使われ「・・・と述べる」の意。

Uttering these words, I suddenly felt almost overwhelmed.
「utter」はここでは「を口に出す」。「overwhelmed」は「打ちのめされた」。

But I collected myself and said:
「collect oneself」で「心をおちつける、気を取り直す」。

‘Now, Akira, we have to go in. We’ll do it together, arm in arm. Just like that other time, going into Ling Tien’s room. You remember, Akira?’
‘Christopher. My dear friend. You must think very carefully. It is many, many years. My friend, please, you listen. Perhaps mother and father. It is now so many years. ‘
‘We’ll go in now together. Then as soon as we’ve done what we have to do, we’ll get you to proper medical help, I promise. In fact, it’s possible there’ll be something, some first aid, in that house. At least some clean water, perhaps bandages.

My mother will be able to look at your injury, perhaps put on a fresh dressing for you.
「dressing」はここでは「包帯」。

Don’t worry, you’ll be fine in no time.’
「in no time」は「直に」。

‘Christopher. You must think very carefully. So many years go by …’


『今日のイデイオム』

「point out」
「を指し示す」

「collect oneself」
「心をおちつける、気を取り直す」

「in no time」
「直に」

不時着水(ditching)

飛行機に乗ると、離陸前に必ず「緊急時対応」の説明がありますが、座席の前のポケットの中にも和英両方の説明書が入っています。

先日、搭乗後離陸まで暫く間があったのでこれに目を通したところ、「不時着水」は「ditching」と訳されていました。

著者は建設機械メーカーに勤務していましたので「溝を掘る機械である ditcher」のことは知っていましたが「ditch」に「(飛行機)を水上に不時着させる」意があることは知りませんでした。

「ditch」を調べてみると、名詞は12世紀以前からあったようですが動詞としての使い方は14世紀に入ってからです。

語源は「堤防」を意味しました。名詞としての主な意味は「水路、溝、排水溝」です。ここから動詞に転用した時「溝を掘る」の意として使いだしたものと思います。この「溝」のイメージから「(車など)を(事故を避けるため)溝に落とす」「(列車)を脱線させる」の意でも使ったのでしょう。20世紀に入って飛行機が発明されましたが、この延長線上で飛行機の不時着水にも使われ出したものと考えます。

この「ditch」という言葉は、多分昔は不要なものはドブに捨てたことから、「を見捨てる、処分する、との関係を断つ、(恋人)を振る」の意でも使われます(He ditched his girlfriend.)。

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (253)

It had split along the grain of the wood, but the two pieces were lying there side by side; I could see also part of the lattice-work by which it had once been fixed to the front entrance. It was not by any means the first time we had come across such a thing, but some instinct drew my attention to this particular item. I went over to it and, extricating the two pieces of wood from the masonry, brought them back to where we were sitting.
‘Akira,’ I said, ‘can you read this?’ I held the pieces together before him.
He gazed at the script for a while, then said: ‘My Chinese, not good. A name. Someone’s name.’
‘Akira, listen carefully. Look at these characters. You must know something about them. Please, try and read them. It’s very important.’
He continued to regard the board, then shook his head.
‘Akira, listen,’ I said. ‘Is it possible this says Yeh Chen? Could that be the name written here?’
‘Yeh Chen …’ Akira looked thoughtful. ‘Yeh Chen. Yes, possible. This character here … Yes, possible. This say Yeh Chen.’
‘It does? Are you sure?’
‘Not sure. But … possible. Very possible. Yes’ – he gave a nod – ‘Yeh Chen. I think so.’
I put down the two pieces of the board and made my way carefully over the rubble towards the front of the house we were in. There was a broken gap where the doorway had once been, and looking through it, I could see into the narrow alley running outside. I looked across to the house directly facing me. The frontages to the adjoining properties were badly smashed, but the house I was looking at had survived strangely intact. There were hardly any obvious signs of damage: the shutters on the window, the crude sliding wooden lattice door, even the charm dangling above the doorway, had all remained unscathed. After what we had travelled through, it looked like an apparition from another more civilized world. I stood there staring at it for some time. Then I gestured to Akira.


註釈:

It had split along the grain of the wood, but the two pieces were lying there side by side; I could see also part of the lattice-work by which it had once been fixed to the front entrance.
「grain」は「木目」。「side by side」は「(横に)並んで」。「lattice-work」は「格子造り・模様・細工」。

It was not by any means the first time we had come across such a thing, but some instinct drew my attention to this particular item.
「not by any means」は「by no means」と同じで「全く・・・でない」。「instinct」は「本能」。

I went over to it and, extricating the two pieces of wood from the masonry, brought them back to where we were sitting.
「extricate」を「解放する」。「masonry」はここでは「石造建築の一部」。

‘Akira,’ I said, ‘can you read this?’ I held the pieces together before him.

He gazed at the script for a while, then said: ‘My Chinese, not good. A name. Someone’s name.’
「script」は「手書き」。

‘Akira, listen carefully. Look at these characters. You must know something about them. Please, try and read them. It’s very important.’
「character」はここでは「文字」。

He continued to regard the board, then shook his head.
「regard」はここでは「注視する」。

‘Akira, listen,’ I said. ‘Is it possible this says Yeh Chen? Could that be the name written here?’

‘Yeh Chen …’ Akira looked thoughtful. ‘Yeh Chen. Yes, possible. This character here … Yes, possible. This say Yeh Chen.’
「thoughtful」はここでは「考え込んだ」。

‘It does? Are you sure?’
‘Not sure. But … possible. Very possible. Yes’ – he gave a nod – ‘Yeh Chen. I think so.’

I put down the two pieces of the board and made my way carefully over the rubble towards the front of the house we were in.
「make one’s way」で「進む」。「rubble」は「瓦礫」。

There was a broken gap where the doorway had once been, and looking through it, I could see into the narrow alley running outside.
「gap」は「すき間」。「doorway」は「入口」。

I looked across to the house directly facing me.

The frontages to the adjoining properties were badly smashed, but the house I was looking at had survived strangely intact.
「frontage」はここでは「空き地」。「adjoining」は「隣の」。「property」はここでは「不動産」。「intact」は「無傷の」。

There were hardly any obvious signs of damage: the shutters on the window, the crude sliding wooden lattice door, even the charm dangling above the doorway, had all remained unscathed.
「dangle」は「ぶら下がる」。「unscathed」は「無傷の」。

After what we had travelled through, it looked like an apparition from another more civilized world. I stood there staring at it for some time. Then I gestured to Akira.
「apparition」は「亡霊」。


『今日のイデイオム』

「not by any means」
「全く・・・でない」

「make one’s way」
「進む」

プレミアム(premium)

「プレミアム」という言葉は「そのチケットは中々手に入らなくて高額なプレミアムがついている」という風に使われる一方で「プレミアム(な)・・・」と商品宣伝に使われます。

「premium」は比較的新しい言葉で17世紀に初出。「戦利品、略奪品、報酬」を意味するラテン語「praemium」が語源。

Concise Oxford Dictionary には次のような使い方が紹介されています。
保険料⇒アメリカではよく使われる使い方です。これは「praemium」に似たもう一つのラテン語の「praeemere」 が「前もって払う」という意味があったものを英語化する時に同じ言葉(premium)にしてしまったためらしいです。「前もって払う」⇒「何かの権利を受けるために払う前払い」⇒「保険料」。
割増金(金利、賃金等に対するもの)
割増金(料金に対するもの)
報酬、賞金
最高の品質の、故により高価な(形容詞)

以上に照らし合わせると「高額なプレミアム」は、「プレミアム(な)・・・」はイ搬弍した使い方です。
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