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Thank You for Visiting Me! 「英語赤ひげ先生」による「知っている英語」を「使える英語」にするための「理論」と「教材」を一挙に無料公開しています。

2018年12月

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (282)

‘All right. Very well.’ He took a few more gulps of air. ‘Then I’ll tell you. I’ll make to you my darkest confession.’
But for the next minute, all I could hear behind me was his heaving breath. Then finally he said:
‘Very well. I’ll confess to you the truth. About why I allowed Wang Ku to kidnap your mother that day. What I said before, yes, it’s true enough. I had to safeguard you. Yes, yes, everything I said earlier more or less stands. But if I’d really wanted to save your mother, I know I’d have found a way to do so. I’ll tell you something now, Puffin. Something I wasn’t able to confess even to myself for many years. I helped Wang Ku take your mother because a part of me wanted her to become his slave. To be used like that, night after night. Because you see, I always lusted after her, right from the days when I came to be a lodger in your house. Oh yes, I desired her, and when your father went off like that, I believed it was my chance, that I was his natural successor. But … but your mother, she’d never looked at me like that, I realised it after your father went away. She respected me as someone decent … No, no, it was impossible. Not in a thousand years could I put myself forward to her, not in that sort of way. And I was angry. I was so angry. And when it all happened, with Wang Ku, it excited me. Do you hear me, Puffin? It excited me! All those years, I lived vicariously through Wang. It was almost as though I’d conquered her too. I gave myself pleasure, many many times, imaging for myself what was happening to her. Now, now, kill me! Why spare me? You’ve heard it! Here, shoot me like a rat!’


註釈:

‘All right. Very well.’

He took a few more gulps of air.
「gulp」はここでは「一口の分量」。

‘Then I’ll tell you. I’ll make to you my darkest confession.’
But for the next minute, all I could hear behind me was his heaving breath.
「heave」はここでは「(激しい息づかいで)波打つ」。


Then finally he said:
‘Very well. I’ll confess to you the truth. About why I allowed Wang Ku to kidnap your mother that day.

What I said before, yes, it’s true enough.
この「enough」は副詞で「全く」の意で「true」を修飾。「enough to believe」の省略と考えることができます。

I had to safeguard you.

Yes, yes, everything I said earlier more or less stands.
「more or less」は「程度の差はあれ」。「stand」はここでは「有効である」。

But if I’d really wanted to save your mother, I know I’d have found a way to do so. I’ll tell you something now, Puffin.

Something I wasn’t able to confess even to myself for many years.

I helped Wang Ku take your mother because a part of me wanted her to become his slave.
「help」は「to なし不定詞」を取ることもできます。

To be used like that, night after night.
「use」はここでは「(人・動物)を扱う(treat)」の意。

Because you see, I always lusted after her, right from the days when I came to be a lodger in your house.
「lust after …」は「・・・に飢える」。「lodger」は「下宿人」。

Oh yes, I desired her, and when your father went off like that, I believed it was my chance, that I was his natural successor. But … but your mother, she’d never looked at me like that, I realised it after your father went away.

She respected me as someone decent … No, no, it was impossible.
「decent」はここでは「上品な、慎み深い、礼儀正しい」。

Not in a thousand years could I put myself forward to her, not in that sort of way.
「not in a thousand years」は「絶対に・・・ない」の意。「put oneself forward」は「出しゃばる」。

And I was angry. I was so angry. And when it all happened, with Wang Ku, it excited me. Do you hear me, Puffin? It excited me!

All those years, I lived vicariously through Wang.
「vicariously」はここでは「身代りに」。

It was almost as though I’d conquered her too. I gave myself pleasure, many many times, imaging for myself what was happening to her. Now, now, kill me!

Why spare me? You’ve heard it! Here, shoot me like a rat!’
「spare」はここでは「を助ける」。


『今日のイデイオム』

「more or less」
「程度の差はあれ」

「not in a thousand years」
「絶対に・・・ない」

「put oneself forward」
「出しゃばる」

「-port-」を語源に持つ言葉

「port」はラテン語「portare(持ち運ぶ)」が語源だそうです。ラテン語の「porta」は「門」を意味しました。そこから昔は空港がなかったので「port」は「港」を意味するようになりました。このような背景があり「-port-」を使った言葉は皆「運ぶ」イメージを持っています。

「porter」は文字通り「運ぶ人」の意。

「import」は「中に運ぶ」⇒「運び入れる」⇒「輸入する」。

「important」の「-ant」は動詞に付けて「・・・を起こす、・・・性の、・・・する、・・・する状態にある」の意の形容詞を作ります。「important」は「(重要だから)運び入れる状態にある」イメージから作られた言葉だと推察されます。

「export」は「外へ運ぶ」⇒「輸出する」。

「transport」は「別の場所に運ぶ」⇒「輸送する、運送する」。

「opportunity」の「op-」は「ob-」が「p」の前で「op-」になったもの。「op-」はここでは「・・・に向かって」のイメージ。「opportune」は「港に向かって(風が吹く)」⇒「好都合の」。「opportunity」は「好機」。「港に行けば何かいいことがある」と解説しておられる方もあるようです。

「report」は「元へ運ぶ」⇒「報告する」。

「support」の『「sup(接頭語 sub はp の前ではsupとなります)⇒下」+「-port(運ぶ)」』⇒「下で(支えて)運ぶ」⇒「支える」の意。

「sport」は「disport」の「di」が消滅したものです。「dis」は「分離」を意味しますので「(気持ちを)別の場所に運ぶ」⇒「気晴らし」。「sport」は現在「運動」の意で使われることが多いですが「人にとっての娯楽、楽しみ、気晴らし」の意もあります。

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (281)

He had taken out his pistol again. He came from the shadows towards me, and when I looked up, he was looming above me, much as he had done in my childhood. He flung back his jacket and pressed the pistol into his waistcoat near his heart.
‘Here,’ he said, bending down and whispering so I could smell his stale breath. ‘Here, boy. You can kill me. As you’ve always wanted to. That’s why I’ve stayed alive so long. No one else should have that privilege. I’ve saved myself, you see, for you. Pull the trigger. Here, look. We’ll make it appear as if I attacked you. I’ll be holding the gun, I’ll fall over you. When they come in, they’ll see my body, collapsed over you, it’ll look like self-defence. See, here, I’m holding it. You pull the trigger, Puffin.’
His waistcoat was pushing against my face, moving up and down with his heaving chest. I felt a revulsion, and tried to move away, but his free hand – the skin felt indescribably parched – had grasped my arm in an effort to draw me to him. It occurred to me he would pull the trigger himself if may hand so much as touched the pistol. I pulled back violently, unbalancing my chair, and staggered away from him.
For a second we both glanced guiltily towards the door to see if the commotion would bring in the guards. But nothing happened, and eventually Uncle Philip laughed, and picking up the chair, positioned it carefully in front of the desk, and spent some time recovering his breath. I took a few more steps away from the desk, but there was nothing else in that cavernous room, and I simply came to a stop, my back still turned to him. Then I heard him say:


註釈:

He had taken out his pistol again.

He came from the shadows towards me, and when I looked up, he was looming above me, much as he had done in my childhood.
「shadows」は「陰、暗がり」。「loom」はここでは「のしかかるように迫る」。「much as …」で「・・・とほとんど同じように」。

He flung back his jacket and pressed the pistol into his waistcoat near his heart.
「fling」はここでは「を脱ぎちらかす」。「waistcoat」は「チョッキ、ベスト」。

‘Here,’ he said, bending down and whispering so I could smell his stale breath.
「stale」はここでは「いやな臭いのする」。

‘Here, boy. You can kill me. As you’ve always wanted to. That’s why I’ve stayed alive so long.

No one else should have that privilege.
「privilege」は「特権」。

I’ve saved myself, you see, for you. Pull the trigger. Here, look. We’ll make it appear as if I attacked you. I’ll be holding the gun, I’ll fall over you.

When they come in, they’ll see my body, collapsed over you, it’ll look like self-defence.
「collapsed」は形容詞として使われていて「崩れ落ちた」。

See, here, I’m holding it. You pull the trigger, Puffin.’

His waistcoat was pushing against my face, moving up and down with his heaving chest.
「heave」はここでは「(激しい息づかいで)波打つ」。

I felt a revulsion, and tried to move away, but his free hand – the skin felt indescribably parched – had grasped my arm in an effort to draw me to him.
「revulsion」は「(激しい)反感、嫌悪」。「indescribably」は「言葉で言い表せないくらい」。「parched」は「からからに乾いた」。

It occurred to me he would pull the trigger himself if may hand so much as touched the pistol.
「It occurred to … (that) …」で「・・・の心にふと・・・が浮かんだ」。「so much as」は「・・・だけ(only)」。

I pulled back violently, unbalancing my chair, and staggered away from him.
「stagger」は「よろめく、ふらつく」。

For a second we both glanced guiltily towards the door to see if the commotion would bring in the guards.
「guiltily」は「ばつの悪い顔をして」。「commotion」は「動揺」。

But nothing happened, and eventually Uncle Philip laughed, and picking up the chair, positioned it carefully in front of the desk, and spent some time recovering his breath.
「eventually」は「やがて」。

I took a few more steps away from the desk, but there was nothing else in that cavernous room, and I simply came to a stop, my back still turned to him.
「cavernous」は「とても広い」。

Then I heard him say:


『今日のイデイオム』

「It occurred to … (that) …」
「・・・の心にふと・・・が浮かんだ」

「so much as」
「・・・だけ(only)」

「-fer-」を語源に持つ言葉

「transfer」「suffer」「refer/reference」「prefer/preference」「offer」「differ/different/difference」「confer/conference」は我々に馴染みの言葉ばかりです。

これらの言葉に共通するのは「fer」を含むということです。語源を表示している辞書で調べると「fer」は「運ぶ」の意であることが分かります。

「transfer」は「trans-(越えて、別の場所へ)」+「-fer(運ぶ)」と解説してあります。「suffer」は『「suf(接頭語 sub はf の前ではsufとなります)⇒下」+「-fer(運ぶ)」』⇒「下で(支えて)運ぶ」⇒「耐える」の意。

「fer」はラテン語の「ferre」が由来だそうで、「ferre」 は「carry」を意味するとのこと。

「refer」の「re-」は「<ラテン語系の語に用いて>反、後、退、離、再、相互」を意味する接頭語です。ここでは「再」⇒「元へ」。「元へ運ぶ」⇒「運び返す、報告する、言及する」。

「prefer」の「pre-」は「以前の、前部にある、上位の、予備の」の意を付与する接頭語ですが、ここでは「前に運ぶ」の意(「自分が好むものは自分の近くに運ぶ」)のイメージでしょうか。

「offer」の「of-」は「ob-」が「f」の前で「of」になったもので、ここでは「・・・に向かって」のイメージ。「ある人に向かって運ぶ」イメージ。

「differ」の「dif-」は「dis-」が「f」の前で「dif」になったもので「分離」を意味します。「(本体から)分離して運ぶ」イメージ。

「confer」の「con-」は「com-」と同じで「共に」の意。「共に運ぶ」⇒「話し合う」。

「ferry」の語源も「運ぶ」を意味しました。

Kazuo Ishiguro: When We Were Orphans (280)

‘That time I last saw your mother,’ he said. ‘In that fortress. She’d lost all her concern for the opium campaign. She only lived for you, worried for you. By that time, the trade had been made illegal. But even that news meant nothing to her any more. Of course I was bitter about it, as were the others of us who’d given years to the campaign. We’d finally achieved our goal, we thought. Opium trade abolished. It only took a year or two to see what abolishment really meant. The trade had simply changed hands, that was all. It was only run by Chiang’s government. More addicts than ever, but now it was being peddled to pay for Chiang Kai-shek’s army, to pay for his power. That’s when I joined the Reds, Puffin. Your mother, I thought she’d be devastated to know what our campaign had amounted to, but she no longer cared. All she wanted was for you to be looked after. She only wanted news of you. Do you know, Puffin’ – his voice suddenly took on a strange edge – ‘when I saw her that time, she seemed well enough. But while I was there, I asked others in the household, people who would know. I wanted to find out the truth, find out how she’d really been treated, because … because I knew that one day this moment, this meeting we’re having now, was bound to come. And I found out. Oh yes, I found out. Everything.’
‘Are you deliberately trying to torment me?’
‘It wasn’t just … just a matter of surrendering to him in bed. He regularly whipped her in front of his dinner guests. Taming the white woman, he called it. And that wasn’t all. Do you know …’
I had already covered my ears, but now shouted out: ‘Enough! Why torture me like this?’
‘Why?’ His voice was now angry. ‘Why? Because I want you to know the truth! All these years, you’ve thought of me as a despicable creature. Perhaps I am, but it’s what this world does to you. I never meant to be like this. I meant to do good in this world. In my way, I once made courageous decisions. And look at me now. You despise me. You’ve despised me all these years, Puffin, the closest thing I ever had to a son, and you despise me still. But do you see how the world really is?’ You see what made possible your comfortable life in England? How you were able to become a celebrated detective? A detective! What good is that to anyone? Stolen jewels, aristocrats murdered for their inheritance. Do you suppose that’s all there is to contend with? Your mother, she wanted you to live in your enchanted world for ever. But it’s impossible. In the end it has to shatter. It’s a miracle it survived so long for you. Now, Puffin, here. I’ll give you this chance. Here.’


註釈:

‘That time I last saw your mother,’ he said.
この文は「‘That time when I last saw your mother,’ he said.」の関係副詞「when」が「省略」されていると考えることができます。英語では「後の言葉は前の言葉を修飾する」傾向が強いので省略しても意味が分かる場合には省略されると考えてよいでしょう。「the place where …」「the reason why …」の「where」「why」も省略可能です。

‘In that fortress.
「fortress」は「要塞」。

She’d lost all her concern for the opium campaign. She only lived for you, worried for you. By that time, the trade had been made illegal. But even that news meant nothing to her any more.

Of course I was bitter about it, as were the others of us who’d given years to the campaign.
「bitter」は「心を痛めた」。「it」は「even that news meant nothing to her any more」を受けています。

We’d finally achieved our goal, we thought.

Opium trade abolished.
「abolished」はここでは「過去分詞(廃止された)」。

It only took a year or two to see what abolishment really meant. The trade had simply changed hands, that was all. It was only run by Chiang’s government.

More addicts than ever, but now it was being peddled to pay for Chiang Kai-shek’s army, to pay for his power.
「addict」は「中毒」。「peddle」はここでは「を密売する」。

That’s when I joined the Reds, Puffin.
「the Reds」は「赤軍」。

Your mother, I thought she’d be devastated to know what our campaign had amounted to, but she no longer cared.
「devastate」は「を困惑させる」。「amount to …」で「結局・・・になる」。「no longer」は「もはや・・・でない」。

All she wanted was for you to be looked after.
「look after …」は「・・・の世話をする」。

She only wanted news of you. Do you know, Puffin’ – his voice suddenly took on a strange edge – ‘when I saw her that time, she seemed well enough.
「edge」はここでは「(欲望・言葉・皮肉などの)鋭さ、激しさ」。

But while I was there, I asked others in the household, people who would know.
「household」は「(雇い人を含めて)家中の者」。

I wanted to find out the truth, find out how she’d really been treated, because … because I knew that one day this moment, this meeting we’re having now, was bound to come. And I found out. Oh yes, I found out. Everything.’

‘Are you deliberately trying to torment me?’
「deliberately」はここでは「故意に」。

‘It wasn’t just … just a matter of surrendering to him in bed.
「surrender」はここでは「体を許す」。

He regularly whipped her in front of his dinner guests. Taming the white woman, he called it. And that wasn’t all. Do you know …’
「tame」は「を飼いならす」

I had already covered my ears, but now shouted out: ‘Enough! Why torture me like this?’
「torture」はここでは「をひどく苦しめる」。

‘Why?’ His voice was now angry. ‘Why? Because I want you to know the truth!

All these years, you’ve thought of me as a despicable creature.
「despicable」は「卑劣な」。

Perhaps I am, but it’s what this world does to you. I never meant to be like this. I meant to do good in this world. In my way, I once made courageous decisions. And look at me now.

You despise me.
「despise」は「をさげすむ」。

You’ve despised me all these years, Puffin, the closest thing I ever had to a son, and you despise me still.
「close」は「親密な」。

But do you see how the world really is?’ You see what made possible your comfortable life in England? How you were able to become a celebrated detective? A detective! What good is that to anyone?

Stolen jewels, aristocrats murdered for their inheritance.
「aristocrat」は「上流階級の人」。「inheritance」は「相続」。

Do you suppose that’s all there is to contend with?
「contend」は「戦う」。

Your mother, she wanted you to live in your enchanted world for ever.
「enchanted」は「魔法にかけられたような」。

But it’s impossible.

In the end it has to shatter.
「in the end」は「結局は」。「shatter」は「粉々になる」。

It’s a miracle it survived so long for you.
「It’s a miracle that it survived so long for you.」の「that」が省略されています。

Now, Puffin, here. I’ll give you this chance. Here.’


『今日のイデイオム』

「amount to …」
「結局・・・になる」

「no longer」
「もはや・・・でない」

「look after …」
「・・・の世話をする」

「in the end」
「結局は」
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