「社会人のための英語回路構築トレーニング自習帖」著者のブログ

Thank You for Visiting Me! 「英語赤ひげ先生」による「知っている英語」を「使える英語」にするための「理論」と「教材」を一挙に無料公開しています。

2020年10月

「特に」

「日本人の英語(マーク・ピーターセン 岩波新書)」を読み返していて、ハッとさせられた箇所があった。それは「especiallyという言葉は存在するが文頭で使われることはない」という箇所です。

手元にある英和辞書を何冊か調べてみたが、このことに言及しているものはありませんでした。しかし例文を調べてみると、
She is most especially good at figures.
I like fruits, especially ripe ones.
“Do you like baseball?” “Not especially.”
His father especially is implicated in it.
Our garden is beautiful, especially in fall.
確かに「文頭では使われていません」。マーク・ピーターセン氏は代りに「In particular」を勧めています。

「particularly」も通例「形容詞・動詞・副詞の前で」使われます。
He is particularly kind to her.
I don’t particularly want to the game.
He likes America, New York particularly.(略式では後置のこともある)

著者も今まで添削で見過ごしてきました(結構見かけます)。論文を書く方は特に注意して下さい。

The Bridges of Madison County(マディソン郡の橋)―(120)

Francesca JohnsonとRobert Kincaidは、Francescaの家族が留守にしている間に出会って、2日目の夜には恋に落ちました。2人は精神的にも肉体的にも完全に結ばれます。しかし、Robert KincaidはFrancescaの家族が帰ってくる日に去って行きました。そして夫も死に、Robert Kincaidの行き先も分からなくなり、Francescaは隠遁し、思い出の橋によく姿を現すようになりました。そんなある日、荷物が届きます。Robert Kincaidの遺品や思い出の写真、そして手紙が同封されていました。

Robert Kincaidが亡くなり、やがてFrancesca Johnson も69歳でなくなりました。2人とも、遺言により、思い出の Roseman Bridgeで散骨されます。そしてFrancescaの息子と娘が遺品整理をしていてRobert Kincaidと母親の関係を知ることとなります。今、母親から子供たちに宛てた手紙を読み始めました。

A letter from Francesca (6)

He was like an arrow in his intensity. I simply was helpless when he made love to me. Not weak, that’s not what I felt. Just well, overwhelmed by his sheer emotional and physical power. Once when I whispered that to him, he simply said, “I am the highway and a peregrine and all the sails that ever went to sea.”
I checked the dictionary later. The first thing people think of when they hear the word “peregrine” is a falcon. But there are other meanings of that. One is “foreigner, alien.” A second is “roving or wandering, migratory.” The Latin peregrines, which is one root of the word, means a stranger. He was all of those things – a stranger, a foreigner in the more general sense of the word, a wanderer, and he also was falconlike, now that I think of it.
Children, understand I am trying to express what cannot put into words. I only wish that someday you each might have what I experienced, however, I’m beginning to think that’s not likely. Though I suppose it’s not fashionable to say such things in these more enlightened times, I don’t think it’s possible for a woman to possess the peculiar kind of power Robert Kincaid had. So, Michael, that let’s you out. As for Carolyn, I’m afraid the bad news is that there was only one of him, and no more.
If not for your father and the two of you, I would have gone anywhere with him, instantly. He asked me to go, begged me to go. But I wouldn’t, and he was too much of a sensitive and caring person to ever interfere in our lives after that.


解説:

He was like an arrow in his intensity(激しいこと).
■彼の激しさは矢のようだった。「arrow」は「早さ・狩り・戦争」を象徴する言葉。

I simply was helpless(無力な) when he made love to me. Not weak, that’s not what I felt. Just well(よく、満足に、申し分なく), overwhelmed(圧倒する) by his sheer(全くの) emotional and physical power.

Once when I whispered that to him, he simply said, “I am the highway and a peregrine(ハヤブサ) and all the sails(帆船) that ever went to sea.”
■that ever went to sea:かって出帆した(ところの)

I checked the dictionary later. The first thing people think of when they hear the word “peregrine” is a falcon(ハヤブサ). But there are other meanings of that. One is “foreigner, alien.” A second is “roving(うろつく) or wandering, migratory(放浪性の).” The Latin peregrines, which is one root of the word, means a stranger.

He was all of those things – a stranger, a foreigner in the more general sense of the word, a wanderer, and he also was falconlike, now that I think of it.
■now that:今それを考えてみると(日本語では「今や・・・だから」が基本的に対応します)

Children, understand I am trying to express what cannot put into words. I only wish that someday you each might have what I experienced, however, I’m beginning to think that’s not likely. Though I suppose it’s not fashionable to say such things in these more enlightened(啓発された) times, I don’t think it’s possible for a woman to possess the peculiar(不思議な) kind of power Robert Kincaid had.

So, Michael, that let’s you out.
■let … out:・・・を解放する

As for Carolyn, I’m afraid the bad news is that there was only one of him, and no more.
■As for…:・・・について言えば

If not for your father and the two of you, I would have gone anywhere with him, instantly.
■If not for …:もし・・・が(い)なければ

He asked me to go, begged me to go.

But I wouldn’t, and he was too much of a sensitive and caring(おもいやりのある) person to ever interfere in our lives after that.
■But I wouldn’t:But I wouldn’t goの省略。「しかし、私は行こうとしなかった」。
■too much of:余りにも・・・。所謂「too … to …」構文。
■interfere in …:・・・に干渉する

The Bridges of Madison County(マディソン郡の橋)―(119)

Francesca JohnsonとRobert Kincaidは、Francescaの家族が留守にしている間に出会って、2日目の夜には恋に落ちました。2人は精神的にも肉体的にも完全に結ばれます。しかし、Robert KincaidはFrancescaの家族が帰ってくる日に去って行きました。そして夫も死に、Robert Kincaidの行き先も分からなくなり、Francescaは隠遁し、思い出の橋によく姿を現すようになりました。そんなある日、荷物が届きます。Robert Kincaidの遺品や思い出の写真、そして手紙が同封されていました。

Robert Kincaidが亡くなり、やがてFrancesca Johnson も69歳でなくなりました。2人とも、遺言により、思い出の Roseman Bridgeで散骨されます。そしてFrancescaの息子と娘が遺品整理をしていてRobert Kincaidと母親の関係を知ることとなります。今、母親から子供たちに宛てた手紙を読み始めました。

A letter from Francesca (5)

The first time I ever saw him was when he stopped and asked directions to Roseman Bridge. The three of you were at the Illinois State Fair. Believe me, I was not scouting around for any adventure. That was the furthest thing from my mind. But I looked at him for less than five seconds, and I knew I wanted him, though not as much as I eventually came to want him.
And please don’t think of him as some Casanova running around taking advantage of country girls. He wasn’t like that at all. In fact, he was a little shy, and I had as much to do with what happened as he did. More, in fact. The note tucked in with his bracelet is one I posted on Roseman Bridge so he would see it the morning after we first met. Aside from his photographs of me, it’s the only piece of evidence he had over the years that I actually existed, that I was not just some dream he had.
I know children have a tendency to think of their parents as rather asexual, so I hope what I’m going to say won’t shock you, and I certainly hope it won’t destroy your memory of me.
In our old kitchen, Robert and I spent hours together. We talked and danced by candlelight. And, yes, we made love there and in the bedroom and in the pasture grass and about anywhere else you can think of. It was incredible, powerful, transcending lovemaking, and it went on for days, almost without stopping. I always have used the word “powerful” a lot in thinking about him. For that’s what he had become by the time we met.


解説:

The first time I ever saw him was when he stopped and asked directions(道順) to Roseman Bridge.
■ever:ここでは「肯定文」の中で「最上級」と共に使われています。この場合は「かって、今までに」の日本語が対応します。
■directions(道順):複数形になることに留意。

The three of you were at the Illinois State Fair.
■The three of you:「同格のof」といわれる使い方です。

Believe me, I was not scouting around for any adventure.
■scout around:探しまわる

That was the furthest thing from my mind. But I looked at him for less than five seconds, and I knew I wanted him, though not as much as I eventually(やがて) came to want him.
And please don’t think of him as some Casanova running around taking advantage of country girls.
■Casanova:ジャコモ・カサノヴァは、ヴェネツィア出身の術策家であり作家。その女性遍歴によって広く知られている。彼の自伝『我が生涯の物語』によれば、その生涯に1,000人の女性とベッドを共にしたという。
■take advantage of:ここでは「を誘惑する」の意。

He wasn’t like that at all.

In fact, he was a little shy, and I had as much to do with what happened as he did.
■have much to do with …:・・・と大いに関係がある

More, in fact. The note tucked(押し込む) in with his bracelet is one I posted on Roseman Bridge so he would see it the morning after we first met. Aside from his photographs of me, it’s the only piece of evidence he had over the years that I actually existed, that I was not just some dream he had.
I know children have a tendency to think of their parents as rather asexual(セックスに無関心な), so I hope what I’m going to say won’t shock you, and I certainly hope it won’t destroy your memory of me.
In our old kitchen, Robert and I spent hours together. We talked and danced by candlelight. And, yes, we made love there and in the bedroom and in the pasture(牧草地) grass and about anywhere else you can think of. It was incredible, powerful, transcending(超越した) lovemaking, and it went on for days, almost without stopping. I always have used the word “powerful” a lot in thinking about him. For(というのは) that’s what he had become by the time we met.

「日曜日はいつも何をしていますか」

これを英作文しようとする時、かなり多くの人が「What are you always doing on Sunday(s)?」とします。

これは「・・・している」を「私は今本を読んでいる」と同じように捉えてしまうからです。菅さんの言葉を借りれば「総合的、俯瞰的に捉えれば、日本語には時制がなくて相(aspect)しかないからだ」となります。

「日本語には時制がない」というのは、日本語では「私はアメリカに行く前に英語の勉強をした」も「私はアメリカに行く前に英語の勉強をする積りだ」も「アメリカに行く前に」は同じ表現で、我々には何ら違和感はありませんが、英語では「私はアメリカに行った前に英語の勉強をした」としないと大変違和感を感じるということです。

英語でもShe is always complaining about her husband.(いつも夫の愚痴ばかりいっている)のような現在進行形を使った表現はあります。この場合は「誇張した表現」で「文句を言っている(或いは被害意識を表現している)」のです。「What are you always doing on Sunday(s)?」は、英語ネイテヴィブには「あなたは日曜日には何ばかりしているか?」のようなニュアンスが伝わるのだと思います。

日本語の「・・・している」は、英語ではザックリいえば「習慣的な行動」であれば「現在形」、継続的な状態であれば「現在進行形」を使います。「日曜日はいつも何をしていますか」は前者ですので「What do you always/usually do on Sunday(s)?」とします。

この英語の「時制」の概念は日本語にはないとは言いませんが、英語ほど厳密ではないので、余程氣をつけて下さい。

ついでに、食事時の「何を飲みますか?」は「What do you drink?」でなく「What will you drink?」です。

The Bridges of Madison County(マディソン郡の橋)―(118)

Francesca JohnsonとRobert Kincaidは、Francescaの家族が留守にしている間に出会って、2日目の夜には恋に落ちました。2人は精神的にも肉体的にも完全に結ばれます。しかし、Robert KincaidはFrancescaの家族が帰ってくる日に去って行きました。そして夫も死に、Robert Kincaidの行き先も分からなくなり、Francescaは隠遁し、思い出の橋によく姿を現すようになりました。そんなある日、荷物が届きます。Robert Kincaidの遺品や思い出の写真、そして手紙が同封されていました。

Robert Kincaidが亡くなり、やがてFrancesca Johnson も69歳でなくなりました。2人とも、遺言により、思い出の Roseman Bridgeで散骨されます。そしてFrancescaの息子と娘が遺品整理をしていてRobert Kincaidと母親の関係を知ることとなります。今、母親から子供たちに宛てた手紙を読み始めました。

A letter from Francesca (4)

It’s hard for me to write this to my own children, but I must. There’s something here that’s too strong, too beautiful, to die with me. And if you are to know who your mother was, all the goods and bads, you need to know what I’m about to say. Brace yourself.
As you’ve already discovered, his name was Robert Kincaid. His middle initial was “L,” but I never knew what the L represented. He was a photographer, and he was here in 1965 photographing the covered bridges.
Remember how excited the town was when the pictures appeared in National Geographic. You may also recall that I began receiving the magazine about that time. Now you know the reason for my sudden interest in it. By the way, I was with him (carrying one of his camera knapsacks) when the photo of Cedar Bridge was taken.
Understand, I loved your father in a quiet fashion. I knew it then, I know it now. He was good to me and gave the two of you, who I treasure. Don’t forget that.
But Robert Kincaid was something quite different, like nobody I’ve ever seen or heard or red about through my entire life. To make you understand him completely is impossible. First of all, you are not me. Second, you would have had to have been around him, to watch him move, to hear him talk about being on a dead-end branch of evolution. Maybe the notebooks and magazine clippings will help, but even those will not be enough.
In a way, he was not of this earth. That’s about as clear as I can say it. I’ve always thought of him as a leopardlike creature who rode in on the tail of a comet. He moved that way, his body was like that. He somehow coupled enormous intensity with warmth and kindness, and there was a vague sense of tragedy about him. He felt he was becoming obsolete in a world of computers and robots and organized living in general. He saw himself as one of the last cowboys, as he put it, and called himself old-fangled.


解説:

It’s hard for me to write this to my own children, but I must.
■日本語では「これを私自身の子供たちに書くのはつらい」と「誰が」書くのかを明示しなくても済みますが、英語では原則として表示する必要があります。「これを私自身の子供たちに私が書くのはつらい」と表現します。不定詞であれ動名詞であれ動詞を使った表現をする時はこのことに留意して下さい。

There’s something here that’s too strong, too beautiful, to die with me.
■to die with me:私と一緒に死ぬには。所謂「too … to …」構文です。

And if you are to know who your mother was, all the goods and bads, you need to know what I’m about to say. Brace yourself.
■all the goods and bads:よい事も悪い事も全て
■Brace yourself:腹をすえていろ。

As you’ve already discovered, his name was Robert Kincaid. His middle initial was “L,” but I never knew what the L represented(表す). He was a photographer, and he was here in 1965 photographing the covered bridges.
Remember how excited the town was when the pictures appeared in National Geographic. You may also recall that I began receiving the magazine about that time. Now you know the reason for my sudden interest in it. By the way, I was with him (carrying one of his camera knapsacks) when the photo of Cedar Bridge was taken.
Understand, I loved your father in a quiet fashion. I knew it then, I know it now. He was good to me and gave the two of you, who I treasure(大事にする). Don’t forget that.
But Robert Kincaid was something quite different, like nobody I’ve ever seen or heard or red about through my entire life. To make you understand him completely is impossible. First of all, you are not me. Second, you would have had to have been around him, to watch him move, to hear him talk about being on a dead-end(行き止まり) branch of evolution(進化). Maybe the notebooks and magazine clippings will help, but even those will not be enough.
In a way, he was not of this earth.

That’s about as clear as I can say it.
■文字通りの意味は「それは私がそれを言うことが出来るのと大体同じくらいはハッキリしている」。

I’ve always thought of him as a leopardlike(ヒョウのような) creature(生き物) who rode in on the tail of a comet(彗星). He moved that way, his body was like that. He somehow coupled(結び付ける) enormous(すごい) intensity(強烈さ) with warmth and kindness, and there was a vague sense of tragedy(悲劇) about him.

He felt he was becoming obsolete(すたれた) in a world of computers and robots and organized living in general.
■in general.:ここでは「一般の」。organized livingを修飾。

He saw himself as one of the last cowboys, as he put it, and called himself old-fangled(時代遅れの).
■as he put it:彼がそう表現したように

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