「社会人のための英語回路構築トレーニング自習帖」著者のブログ

Thank You for Visiting Me! 「英語赤ひげ先生」による「知っている英語」を「使える英語」にするための「理論」と「教材」を一挙に無料公開しています。

前置詞

名詞+前置詞(4)

(16) impression on …
「・・・への印象」
my first impression on meeting my daughter’s boyfriend (娘のボーイフレンドに会った私の第一印象)
make a favorable impression on voters (有権者によい印象を与える)

(17) influence on …
「・・・に対する影響」
Such magazines have a great influence on children. (そのような雑誌は子どもに大きな影響を与える)
The book had a great influence on his life. (その本は彼の人生に大きな影響を与えた)

(18) the same as …
「・・・と同じ」
Charles’s composition seems to be the same as the one Tom turned in. We’re wondering which one wrote it and which one copied it. (チャールスの作文はトムが提出した作文と同じと思われる。どちらが書いてどちらが写したのかと思っている)
look the same as everybody else :皆と見た目が変わらない

(19) choice between …
「・・・の間の二者択一」
be given a choice between surrender and/or death (降伏か死かの選択を迫られる)
women forced to make a choice between family and career (家庭か仕事かを選択することを強いられている女性たち)

(20) the matter with …
「・・・に関する困難、故障、難儀、事故、心配」
Something is the matter with my camera. / There is something the matter with my camera. (私のカメラの調子が悪い)
What’s the matter? (どうしたの)⇒目上には “Is there anything the matter (with you)?” 等の方がよい、とされています。

名詞+前置詞(3)

(11) satisfaction in …
「・・・に満足すること」「・・・することに満足すること」
Satisfaction in the following areas is high. (次のような分野での満足度が高い)
They take great satisfaction in having a beautiful garden. (彼らは美しい庭を持っていることに大いに満足している)

(12) end to …
通例「put an end to …」の形で使われ「・・・を終わらせる」の意。
A sudden noise put an end to their conversation. (突然物音がして、彼らはしゃべるのをやめた)
Let's put an end to this fruitless debate. (この無益な論争はもう打ち止めにしよう)

(13) exception to …
「・・・に対する例外」
an exception to a rule (規則の例外)⇒「例外」は「規則」の一部ではありませんので「of」は不可。
There are exceptions to every rule. (どんな規則にも例外はある)

(14) invitation to …
「・・・への招待、勧誘」
send out invitations to a party (パーテイの招待状を出す)
accept an invitation to run the hotel (そのホテル経営の勧誘に応じる)

(15) solution to …
「・・・の解答・解決策」
arrive at / reach the solution to the problem (問題の解答に至る)
There seems to be a solution to this problem. (この問題には解決策があるように思える)

名詞+前置詞(2)

(6) a lot of … / lots of …
「a good/great deal of …」と同じで「沢山の・・・、多量の・・・」の意。
You can eliminate a lot of your stress simply by changing your perspective. (ただ物の見方を変えるだけで多くのストレスをなくすことができる)
There were lots of people. (すごくたくさんの人たちがいた)
There was lots of fun. (いろいろとおもしろかった)⇒不可算名詞の場合は単数扱い。

(7) faith in …
「・・・に対する信頼、信用」
lose faith in him : 彼を信用しなくなる
have faith in her : 彼女を信用している
You can put your faith in me. (私を信用していいんだよ)

(8) interest in …
「・・・に対する関心、興味」
feel/take (a) great interest in one’s studies : 自分の研究に大いに関心がある
show (an) interest in music : 音楽に興味を示す
have (an) interest in music : 音楽に興味を持つ
lose (an) interest in music : 音楽に対する興味を失う

(9) part in …
通例「take part in …」の形で「・・・に参加する」
Would you take part in the project? (事業に加わってくれませんか)
take part in a discussion : 議論に参加する
How many countries took part in the last Olympic Games? (先のオリンピックには何カ国参加しましたか)

(10) progress in …
「・・・に対する・おける進歩、発達、発展、向上」
We have made great progress in controlling inflation. (インフレをコントロールするのに大いに進展があった)
You’ve made great progress in speaking English. (あなたは英語をしゃべるのがとても上達しました)

名詞+前置詞(1)

「動詞+前置詞」「形容詞+前置詞」を熟語的に検討してきましたが、本「前置詞」シリーズの最後に熟語的な「名詞+前置詞」例をいくつかご紹介します。ここまで「動詞+前置詞」「形容詞+前置詞」を執筆してきて、前置詞に関しては使い方が極めて多岐に亘り、沢山の例文に触れることが大切であると痛感しています。

(1) cause of …
「・・・の原因、・・・のもと」
What was the cause of the fire? (火事の原因は何か?)⇒「火事の原因」という場合、「原因」は「火事(という事象)の一部」ですので「of」と結び付くわけです。
Lack of care was the cause of the bird’s death. (世話をしなかったのが鳥が死んだ原因だ)

(2) charge of …
「・・・の責任、管理、運営」。この使い方は通例「take charge of …」「have charge of …」の形になります。
take/have charge of the class (そのクラスを担任する)
Who has charge of the office when Mr. Ellis is away? (エリス氏がいない時には誰が事務所の管理をするのですか)

(3) choice of …
「・・・の選択の機会・余地」
We have a choice of three entrees. (3つのメイン料理から選ぶことができる)
She had a chance of going or remaining. (彼女は行くか残るかどちらかであった)

(4) a good/great deal of …
「沢山の・・・、多量の・・・」
We had a good deal of snow last year. (去年の冬は雪が多かった)
What a great deal of work I have to do today! (何と沢山の仕事を今日しなければならないのでしょう)

(5) impression of …
通例「give the impression of …」の形で使われて「・・・の印象(を与える)」。「give the impression that …」なら「・・・」には文がきます。
Without having perfect features, Jane gives the impression of being very beautiful. (完璧な顔立ちというわけではないがジェーンは非常に美しいという印象を与えます)
You give the impression of being a bad person. (あなたは悪い人だという印象を与える)⇒「being」を忘れないように。

形容詞+前置詞 テスト(2)

B.Fill in the blanks with the correct preposition.

1.In the theater, seats downstairs are certainly preferable … those upstairs. That’s why I was happy … it when I was given two orchestra seats free … charge for the play at the National Theater. People who have seen the play are very enthusiastic … it. I’m very excited … going to see it.
2.Mrs. Lake is very fond … children. She’s very proud … them. She is rarely impatient … them. She gives them foods that are good … them. She tries to make them considerate … other people and polite … everybody. The children are certainly obedient … their mother, and I have never seen them when they were rude … anyone.
3.“Do you ever feel homesick … your country?” “Sometimes I do. Last week I was ill … a cold, and I was really feeling sorry … myself. I was homesick then, and I was also hungry … some rice the way we cook it at home.”
4.“I’m afraid the man Carolyn is married to isn’t worthy of her.”
“You can’t be so sure of that. I think you’re just jealous of him because she treats him so well. I think they’re certainly satisfied with each other.”
5.Jack is very good in/at all sports, but he’s especially expert at tennis. He has been successful in/at several tournaments.
6.“Do you believe that man is really guilty of murder?”
“I think he is, but to be fair to him, no evidence has been given yet that is acceptable to the jury as proof.”
7.Mary has just come home, tired from shopping all day. She is very particular about her dresses. Just now she is feeling very annoyed with/at all the department stores in town, due to the fact that they didn’t have what she wanted.
8.Ann’s grandmother gave her a blouse and skirt for her birthday. Ann was delighted with them. They are the kind that are very popular with girls of her age just now. Although Ann is very pleased with her present, and really feels thankful for it, she has been very careless about writing a thank-you letter. So far she has written only one sentence. It says,
“Dear Grandmother: I’m very pleased with the present you sent.” Ann’s mother wonders when the letter will be ready for the mailbox.
9.“Are you familiar with the bus system in this town?”
“I know it well enough to be amazed at how slow the buses always are. Where do you want to go?”
“I have an appointment with a doctor on Beecher Street.”
“Beecher Street? That runs parallel to Main Street, doesn’t it? Take the D-2 bus.”
10.Parents of teen-age children in the United States sometimes get angry with their children because they are so inconsiderate of other people. For one thing, these young people sometimes act as if they are completely independent of their parents. Parents have to remind them that cooperation is essential to a happy family life, and that other members of the family may be eager for the telephone or the family car.


回答:

1.In the theater, seats downstairs are certainly preferable to those upstairs. That’s why I was happy about it when I was given two orchestra seats free of charge for the play at the National Theater. People who have seen the play are very enthusiastic about it. I’m very excited about going to see it.
2.Mrs. Lake is very fond of children. She’s very proud of them. She is rarely impatient with them. She gives them foods that are good for them. She tries to make them considerate of other people and polite to everybody. The children are certainly obedient to their mother, and I have never seen them when they were rude to anyone.
3.“Do you ever feel homesick for your country?” “Sometimes I do. Last week I was ill with a cold, and I was really feeling sorry for myself. I was homesick then, and I was also hungry for some rice the way we cook it at home.”
4.“I’m afraid the man Carolyn is married to isn’t worthy of her.”
“You can’t be so sure of that. I think you’re just jealous of him because she treats him so well. I think they’re certainly satisfied with each other.”
5.Jack is very good in/at all sports, but he’s especially expert at tennis. He has been successful in/at several tournaments.
6.“Do you believe that man is really guilty of murder?”
“I think he is, but to be fair to him, no evidence has been given yet that is acceptable to the jury as proof.”
7.Mary has just come home, tired from shopping all day. She is very particular about her dresses. Just now she is feeling very annoyed with/at all the department stores in town, due to the fact that they didn’t have what she wanted.
8.Ann’s grandmother gave her a blouse and skirt for her birthday. Ann was delighted with them. They are the kind that are very popular with girls of her age just now. Although Ann is very pleased with her present, and really feels thankful for it, she has been very careless about writing a thank-you letter. So far she has written only one sentence. It says,
“Dear Grandmother: I’m very pleased with the present you sent.” Ann’s mother wonders when the letter will be ready for the mailbox.
9.“Are you familiar with the bus system in this town?”
“I know it well enough to be amazed at how slow the buses always are. Where do you want to go?”
“I have an appointment with a doctor on Beecher Street.”
“Beecher Street? That runs parallel to Main Street, doesn’t it? Take the D-2 bus.”
10.Parents of teen-age children in the United States sometimes get angry with their children because they are so inconsiderate of other people. For one thing, these young people sometimes act as if they are completely independent of their parents. Parents have to remind them that cooperation is essential to a happy family life, and that other members of the family may be eager for the telephone or the family car.

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