「社会人のための英語回路構築トレーニング自習帖」著者のブログ

Thank You for Visiting Me! 「英語赤ひげ先生」による「知っている英語」を「使える英語」にするための「理論」と「教材」を一挙に無料公開しています。

前置詞

動詞に続く前置詞(9)

(41) suffer for/from/with …
「suffer」はラテン語が語源で、自動詞では「苦しむ」の意になります。

suffer for … :「(人・物・事)のために苦しむ、悩む」
She suffered for her theft. (彼女は自分が盗みを働いたことで悩んだ)
He made a rash decision and now he is suffering for it. (彼は急いで結論を下した、そして今はそのことで悩んでいる)

suffer from/with …:「(病気など)で苦しむ、悩む」
「from」は基本的には「起点」を表します。「苦しむ」起点⇒「原因・動機」とイメージが発展しています。
suffer from stomach cancer :「胃がんにかかる」
Helen is suffering with a headache today. (ヘレンは今日頭痛がしている)

(42) talk about/of/to/with …
talk about/of …:「・・・についてはなす、しゃべる」「・・・のうわさをする、陰口をきく」。「of」はやや古い使い方で文章語であると書いてある辞書もあります。
We talked about/of our hobbies. (私たちは趣味について話した)
I suppose the neighbors will talk about us after we move away. (私たちが引っ越しした後で隣人たちはわたしたちの陰口をきくと思う)

talk to/with …:「・・・と話す、相談する」
米では通例「to」は「話しかける」、「with」は「話しあう」場面で使われます。
If something is bothering you, find someone to talk to about it. (もし何かで困っているのならそのことについて話せる人を見つけなさい)
We looked around the school and talked with the principal. (我々は学校を見てまわって、校長先生と話した)

(43) tell about …
「・・・のことを話す、語る、知らせる」
Let me tell you about our specials today. (今日の特別料理をお教えしましょう)
He told me about/of the accident. (彼は私にその事故のことを話してくれた)

(44) think about/of …
「about/of 」の違いについては(39) を参照。

think about … :「・・・のことを考える」「・・・について熟考する、検討する」
I often think about you. (よく君のことを考えるよ)

think of … :「・・・を思いつく、考えつく」「・・・を思い出す」「・・・のことを思う」「・・・を予期する」
The researchers thought of a new way to produce microchips. (研究者たちはマイクロチップの新しい製造の仕方を思いついた)
He can’t think of the name of the girl he met on the beach last summer. (彼は昨年の夏、ビーチで会った女の子の名前が思いだせないでいる)
My mother really enjoyed your birthday card. Thanks for thinking of her. (母はあなたの誕生カードを喜んでいました。母のことを思っていただいてありがとうございます)
I never thought of it. (そんなことは思ってもみなかった)

(45) throw … at/to …
throw … at … :「・・・を・・・めがけて投げる」
throw stones at the police officer (その警官めがけて石を投げつける)

throw … to … :「・・・を・・・に投げる」
throw the ball to him (彼にボールを投げる)

動詞に続く前置詞(8)

(36) recover from …
「・・・から元どおりになる、回復する」。「recover」には自動詞・他動詞両方の使い方があります。「from」は「起点」を表しますので、この使い方は日本語と同じで我々には易しいですね。
recover from one’s serious illness (重病が治る)
We haven’t yet recovered from the shock. (私たちはまだショックから立ち直っていない)

(37) sell … for/to …
sell … for …:「・・・を(ある価格)で売る」
She sold me the watch for/at $60. (彼女は60ドルで私にその時計を譲ってくれた)
What would you sell this antique vase for? (この骨董品の花瓶をいくらなら売って
くれますか)

sell … to …:「・・・を・・・に売る」。「sell」は直接目的語(「物」)と間接目的語(「人」)
を同時にとることが出来る動詞ですが(その場合「人」「物」の順になります)、直接目
的語を先に持ってくる場合(頭の中に「物」の方が先に思い浮かぶ場合)、「・・・に」
の「に」にあたる部分が「to」になります。
She sold the watch to him. (彼女はその時計を彼に売った)

(38) smile at …
「・・・にほほえむ」。場合によっては「苦笑する、冷笑する」の意になることがあり
ます。
The baby smiled at her mother. (赤ん坊は母親を見てにっこり笑った)。「to」は動作
がそこまで行き着くことを含意しますので、ここでは不可。「smile to oneself (ほくそ
えむ)」は可。
I had to smile at his optimism. (彼の楽観主義には苦笑せざるをえなかった)

(39) speak of/to …
speak of …:「・・・について話す」。「speak about」でもほぼ同じような意味になりま
すが「詳しくその事について」のイメージになります。「of」は基本的には「出所」を
表します。「speak(話す、しゃべる)」という行為の出所が「…」ということです。で
すから、ここではある意味で「speak」の直接目的語を表す役目を持っています。分か
りやすい例で説明すると「dream of him」は「彼を夢見る」、「dream about him」は「彼
が登場する夢を見る」
He never speaks of his dead daughter. (彼は死んだ娘のことを絶対に口にしない)

speak to …:「・・・と話をする」「・・・に話しかける」。前者の意味では「speak
with …」でも同じ。婉曲的に「・・・をしかる」の意になることもあります。
speak to her about the matter (その件について彼女と話をする)
I’ve never been spoken to like that. (そんなふうに話しかけられたのは初めてだ)
I wish you would speak to him about his bad manners. (彼のお行儀の悪さをしかっ
てくれるといいのだが)

(40) succeed in …
「succeed」はラテン語が語源です。自動詞では「成功する」「あとを継ぐ」の意。他動詞では「成功する」の意はありません。「succeed in …」は「・・・という世界の中で成功する」⇒「・・・に成功する」の意。「・・・」の部分は大抵動名詞。自動詞で「あとを継ぐ」の意で使う場合は、前置詞は「to」。
She succeeded in getting what she wanted. (彼女は欲しい物をうまく手に入れることができた)。
We succeeded in the negotiation. (我々の交渉は首尾よくいった)

動詞に続く前置詞(3)

(11) buy … at/from …
buy … at …(・・・で買う)⇒場所を表します。
buy … from …(・・・から買う⇒人、会社などの組織を表します。
I bought this bicycle at the store. (この自転車をその店で買った)
I bought this bicycle from her. (この自転車を彼女から買った)

(12) change … from/to/into …
Could you change the time of my appointment from 2:30 to 3 o’clock? (予約の時間を2時半から3時に変えていただけませんか?)
The actress changed her name to Marcia Mason. (その女優は名前をマルシア・メイソンに変えた)

His wife’s death changed him into another man. (彼の妻の死は彼をもう1人の人間に変形・変質させた⇒彼は妻を亡くして別人のようになった)
change dollars for/into pounds (ドルをポンドに変える)
「into」は「ある状態の中に移動し、その結果まだその状態の中にいる・ある」というイメージです。

(13) consist of …
「・・・から成り立つ、成り立っている」。「consist」はラテン語が語源。「of」はここでは「素材・材料等の出所」を表しています。
Coal consists mostly of carbon. (石炭は大部分が炭素から成り立っている)
This club consists of more than 200 members. (このクラブは200人以上の会員を擁している)

(14) correspond to/ with …
correspond to … (・・・に一致する、・・・に相当する)。「correspond」はラテン語が語源。
Your answer to the mathematical problem corresponds exactly to the model answer. (君の数学の問題の解答は模範解答とぴったり一致する)
The hat corresponds well to her dress. (その帽子は彼女のドレスによく合っている)
The president of a company corresponds to the captain of a ship. (会社の社長は船の船長に相当する)

correspond with …(・・・と一致する、・・・と文通する)。
His deeds correspond with his words. (彼は言行一致の人だ)
I have corresponded with him for a long time. (彼と私は長い間文通をしている)

(15) depend on …
「・・・に頼る、依存する」。「depend」もラテン語が語源です。「on」が採用されるのは「土台の上に乗っている」イメージです。
The children depend on her. (その子たちは彼女を頼りにしている)
The map can’t be depended on. (その地図は当てにならない)
Japan depends on foreign countries for oil. (日本は石油を外国に依存している)

「前置詞+名詞」を使った慣用句のテスト(5)

E.Fill n the blanks the sentences below with the correct preposition.

1.…… the job Jim usually wears sports clothes; …… the job he wears a white coat and white pants.
2.I know him …… name, but I’ve never seen him …… person.
3.The city was named …… honor …… the man who founded it.
4.How neat your room looks! Everything is …… order and nothing is …… place.
5.I just found out …… accident that my telephone is out …… order. Who is …… charge …… telephone repairs?
6.“Dinner tonight is …… the expense ….. the company.” “Do you mean that we’re getting a fine meal like this …… nothing?”
7.That was a terrible concert. All the instruments seemed to be …… tune, and all the musicians …… practice. They certainly should try to improve ….. the sake …. the audience.
8.“What do people here do…… fun?” “Well, there are rides you can take …… horseback, you can go swimming or fishing, or you can go …… picnics. …… the way, have you seen the lake near here? It is ….. sight from your window. That’s where most people swim and fish. We could walk …… the direction ….. the lake now, if you would like to.”
9.John was romantic …… heart. ……example, he fell …… love …… Alice …… first sight. They were happy together …… the rest of their lives. …… fact, they were …… far the happiest couple I have ever known.
10.I am …… favor ….. high taxes …… principle. …… any rate, I believe that a government should give many services to the people.
11.I am …… doubt about where I will stay in Chicago. Please write to me …… care …… my brother. I’ll give you his address …… case you’ve forgotten it, because I certainly do want to keep …… touch …… you while I’m away.
12.The first time Harry was …… his own in Washington, he visited the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. When he was ready to leave, he took another boy’s coat …… mistake. The man who was …… guard said, “Are you sure that’s your coat?” …… spite …… the fact that the man spoke politely, Harry was afraid that he was …… trouble. He knew that the coat wasn’t his, and he didn’t know whether they would believe him when he said he’d taken it …… accident. He wondered whether they’d put him …… jail. …… course, the guard knew that Harry had taken the coat …… mistake.
13.This hotel is very …… date. …… instance, the lobby and all the rooms are decorated …… very good taste. The waiters in the dining room can take your order …… Spanish or French as well as …… English. I read about this hotel …… an advertisement …… the paper yesterday. I’d like to stay there sometime, but I’m afraid their prices are …… line. …… other words, it’s very expensive, …… comparison …… hotels where I usually stay.
14.Mr. Green seems to be ….. low spirits today. He must have something …… his mind. He has a lot of work ……. progress. Maybe he’s worried about that. …… any event I hope he’s …… a better mood tomorrow.
15.This magazine that you have …… sale is ……. date. Don’t you have any new ones …… hand?


回答:

1.Off the job Jim usually wears sports clothes; on the job he wears a white coat and white pants.
2.I know him by name, but I’ve never seen him in person.
3.The city was named in honor of the man who founded it.
4.How neat your room looks! Everything is in order and nothing is out of place.
5.I just found out by accident that my telephone is out of order. Who is in charge of telephone repairs?
6.“Dinner tonight is at the expense of the company.” “Do you mean that we’re getting a fine meal like this for nothing?”
7.That was a terrible concert. All the instruments seemed to be out of tune, and all the musicians out of practice. They certainly should try to improve for the sake of the audience.
8.“What do people here do for fun?” “Well, there are rides you can take on horseback, you can go swimming or fishing, or you can go on picnics. By the way, have you seen the lake near here? It is in sight from your window. That’s where most people swim and fish. We could walk in the direction of the lake now, if you would like to.”
9.John was romantic at heart. For example, he fell in love with Alice at first sight. They were happy together for the rest of their lives. In fact, they were by far the happiest couple I have ever known.
10.I am in favor of high taxes on principle. At any rate, I believe that a government should give many services to the people.
11.I am in doubt about where I will stay in Chicago. Please write to me in care of my brother. I’ll give you his address in case you’ve forgotten it, because I certainly do want to keep in touch with you while I’m away.
12.The first time Harry was on his own in Washington, he visited the museum of the Smithsonian Institution. When he was ready to leave, he took another boy’s coat by mistake. The man who was on guard said, “Are you sure that’s your coat?” In spite of the fact that the man spoke politely, Harry was afraid that he was in trouble. He knew that the coat wasn’t his, and he didn’t know whether they would believe him when he said he’d taken it by accident. He wondered whether they’d put him in jail. Of course, the guard knew that Harry had taken the coat by mistake.
13.This hotel is very up to date. For instance, the lobby and all the rooms are decorated in very good taste. The waiters in the dining room can take your order in Spanish or French as well as in English. I read about this hotel in an advertisement in the paper yesterday. I’d like to stay there sometime, but I’m afraid their prices are out of line. In other words, it’s very expensive, in comparison to/with hotels where I usually stay.
14.Mr. Green seems to be in low spirits today. He must have something on his mind. He has a lot of work in progress. Maybe he’s worried about that. In any event I hope he’s in a better mood tomorrow.
15.This magazine that you have on/for sale is out of date. Don’t you have any new ones on hand?

「前置詞+名詞」を使った慣用句のテスト(3)

A.Fill n the blanks in each sentence with the phrase that make the best sense.

on the house
on a diet
at the most
on business
on strike
on purpose
out of order
by myself
by name
at first sight
on guard
on a picnic
by mistake
by far

1.I can’t eat chocolate cake because I’m ……
2.Put your money away; you’ve been such loyal customers that this dinner is ……
3.Karen liked the dog …… She immediately decided to buy it.
4.In his hurry to leave the restaurant Tom grabbed my coat ……
5.Although Judy never met Mr. Jackson, she knew him ……
6.The workers went …… for higher wages.
7.Of the ten evening dresses, the black lace was …… the most expensive.
8.The family packed fried chicken and potato salad to take ……
9.Mr. Dawson had to go to New York …… this week.
10.He didn’t break the vase ……; it was an accident.
11.No one helped me make this coffee table; I did it ……
12.The radio wasn’t working; it was ……
13.It wasn’t a large crowd; There were not more than fifty people there, ……
14.There is always a police man …… at the White House.


回答:
1.I can’t eat chocolate cake because I’m on a diet.
2.Put your money away; you’ve been such loyal customers that this dinner is on the house.
3.Karen liked the dog at first sight. She immediately decided to buy it.
4.In his hurry to leave the restaurant Tom grabbed my coat by mistake.
5.Although Judy never met Mr. Jackson, she knew him by name.
6.The workers went on strike for higher wages.
7.Of the ten evening dresses, the black lace was by far the most expensive.
8.The family packed fried chicken and potato salad to take on a picnic.
9.Mr. Dawson had to go to New York on business this week.
10.He didn’t break the vase on purpose; it was an accident.
11.No one helped me make this coffee table; I did it by myself.
12.The radio wasn’t working; it was out of order.
13.It wasn’t a large crowd; There were not more than fifty people there, at the most.
14.There is always a police man on guard at the White House.
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